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Cardiovascular Research

Enabling Transformative Discoveries

Red Blood Cells

In the dynamic landscape of modern health, cardiovascular diseases rank as the foremost global causes of mortality. From exploring the intricate connections between chronic inflammation and the development of cardiovascular conditions, to investigating how impaired mitochondrial function contributes to the onset and progression of heart failure, researchers are navigating the complexities of cardiovascular disease progression to address critical aspects of cardiovascular health.

Cardiovascular treatment is dependent on the cause and the extent of heart damage. While healthy lifestyle, medication and even surgery are common treatments, stem cell therapy development has been emerging as a dynamic frontier, where scientific investigation converges with therapeutic innovation. This multidisciplinary approach holds the promise of reshaping the landscape of cardiovascular care, offering novel strategies to enhance cardiac repair and improve patient outcomes.

Regardless of your focus within cardiovascular research, Enzo offers innovative tools designed to accelerate discoveries through our patented technologies and robust manufacturing capabilities. With over 45 years of expertise and collaboration with scientists across the globe, Enzo provides unique solutions that will propel the progress of cardiovascular research. Our extensive product catalog reflects our commitment to providing the necessary tools and support that enable your groundbreaking discoveries.


Understanding the Complexity of Cardiovascular Diseases To Enable Transformative Discoveries

Angiogenesis & Vascular Biology

Vascular growth and regeneration are fundamental processes in the maintenance and repair of the circulatory system.

Calcium Mobilization

Mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial membrane potential cytotoxicity can lead to damaging protein, lipids, and/or nucleic acids macromolecules.

Inflammation & Heart Disease

Chronic inflammation is recognized as a key contributor to the development of cardiovascular diseases.

Mitochondria & Heart Failure

Mitochondria play a crucial role in the energy metabolism of cardiac cells, and their dysfunction has been implicated in heart failure.

Cell Therapy

Cellular therapy is a novel approach to treat cardiovascular diseases.


Biomarkers play a crucial role in risk assessment, diagnosis, and in monitoring treatment response of cardiovascular conditions.

Angiogenesis & Vascular Biology

Vascular growth and regeneration are fundamental processes in the maintenance and repair of the circulatory system. Vascular growth, also known as angiogenesis, is a complex and tightly regulated process that occurs during development, and under various physiological and pathological conditions. It also plays a pivotal role in cardiovascular diseases and cancer growth.

Vasopressin, also known as arginine vasopressin (AVP) or [Arg8]-Vasopressin, is a peptide hormone produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland, to regulate osmotic balance, sodium homeostasis, kidney function, and blood pressure. Recent studies explore the potential role of vasopressin as a pro-angiogenic factor that reduces cardiovascular damage.


[Arg8] Vasopressin ELISA Kit

The highly sensitive [Arg8] Vasopressin ELISA Kit can measure this critical peptide hormone involved in blood vessel constriction, and linked to several cardiovascular processes. For instance, this assay can detect elevated levels of AVP in plasma samples, in cases of ischemic cardiomyopathy, for the study of chronic congestive heart failure.

  • High sensitivity, detecting as little as 2.84 pg/ml
  • High specificity, with negligible reactivity towards oxytocin and other related molecules
  • Widely cited and flexible, to use with a variety of sample types including urine, perfusates, plasma, tissue, and serum

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High Sensitivity Detection of [Arg8] Vasopressin

Standard curve for the detection of as little as 2.84 pg/ml of [Arg8] Vasopressin.


Calcium Mobilization

Calcium plays a crucial role in the contraction of heart muscles, and the process of calcium mobilization in cardiac muscle cells is highly investigated. Dysregulation in calcium handling, whether due to genetic mutations or other factors, can lead to arrhythmias and impair cardiac function. Fluorescent calcium indicators are used to monitor changes in intracellular calcium levels, allowing real-time visualization.


FLUOFORTE® Calcium Assay Kit

Enzo’s FLUOFORTE® dyes are optimized for high throughput detection of intracellular calcium in living cells such as cardiomyocytes as well as characterized second messenger commonly used to monitor G-protein-coupled receptors activation in primary screening.

  • Provides EC50 values comparable to Fluo-4 and Calcium 4
  • Optimized for superior cell-permeability and retention
  • Ultrasensitive dye that provides larger assay window allowing the detection of weak signal compound responses

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FLUOFORTE® Calcium Assay Kit
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2X brighter dye than Fluo-4 for Superior Detection of Calcium Mobilization

FLUOFORTE® exhibits significantly brighter fluorescence intensity than Fluo-3 AM and Fluo-4 AM. U-2 OS cells were seeded overnight, growth medium was removed, and cells were incubated with 100 µL of FLUOFORTE® AM, Fluo-3 AM, or Fluo-4 AM in HHBS at 37 °C, 5% CO2 incubator for 1 hour. The cells were washed twice with 200 µL HHBS, and ATP (20 µL/well) was added to achieve concentrations of 200 nM with dye efflux inhibitor. Cells were then immediately imaged with a fluorescence microscope (Olympus IX71) using FITC channel.


Inflammation & Heart Disease

Chronic inflammation is recognized as a key contributor to the development of various cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. Inflammatory processes can lead to the formation and progression of atherosclerotic plaques in blood vessels.


PGE2 High Sensitivity ELISA Kit

In chronic inflammation and cardiac physiology studies, the PGE2 ELISA Kit is used to detect and quantify PGE2 as a marker of cardiac function.

  • Ultrasensitive measurement, detecting as little as 8.26 pg/ml PGE2
  • Compatible with culture supernatants, serum, saliva, urine, whole blood and more
  • Widely cited in peer-reviewed publications

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Ultrasensitive ELISA Kit for detection of PGE2

Standard curve showing that PGE2 ELISA Kit can detect as little as 8.26 pg/ml of protein


Mitochondria & Heart Failure

Mitochondria play a crucial role in the energy metabolism of cardiac cells, and their dysfunction has been implicated in heart failure. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a signaling molecule that is involved in various cellular processes, including regulating cardiac contractility, heart rate, and other processes. Medications like beta-adrenergic receptor blockers and phosphodiesterase inhibitors modulate cAMP levels.


cAMP Complete ELISA Kit

Complete colorimetric kit for intracellular and extracellular quantification of cAMP

  • Highly sensitive measurement of cAMP with an optional acetylation protocol increasing sensitivity >10-fold (0.006 pmol/ml and 0.027 pmol/ml) for intra- and extracellular cAMP, respectively
  • Widely cited in peer-reviewed publications
  • Reliable and consistent lot-to-lot performance

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Proven Consistency with Lot-to-Lot Performance

Lot-to-lot consistency: Graph demonstrates the robust and reproducible nature of the competitive cAMP ELISA Kit showing standard curves from 10 lots manufactured over 10 years.


Cell Therapy for Cardiovascular Disease

Cellular therapy has been often proposed as a critical approach to treat cardiovascular diseases. Stem cells, especially mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are explored as a regenerative approach for cardiovascular conditions. Cell-based cardiovascular therapy research and development aim to refine techniques, expand indications, and establish the long-term safety and efficacy of these treatments.


SCREEN-WELL® Cardiotoxicity Library

Our cardiotoxicity compound library is an essential tool used for high-throughput screening to identify potential targets for cellular therapy research, and as predictive toxicology screening to assess safety in cellular therapy development.

  • A focused collection of 130 compounds with defined and diverse cardiotoxicity: arrhythmia, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, carditis, mitochondrial toxicity, and more
  • Includes a variety of structurally and mechanistically different compound classes, as well as non-toxic controls
  • Consistent and dependable lot-to-lot performances

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Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Diseases

Cardiac disease biomarkers play a crucial role in cardiovascular diagnosis, risk assessment, and in monitoring treatment response. 25(OH) Vitamin D, also known as calcidiol, plays a role in various physiological processes, including cardiovascular health. Recent studies suggested that lower levels of vitamin D may be associated with an increased risk of heart disease and hypertension.


25(OH) Vitamin D ELISA kit

The 25(OH)-Vitamin D assay is quick and accurate, making it the tool of choice for 25(OH)-Vitamin D detection.

  • Ultra-sensitive measurement of 25(OH) Vitamin D, detecting as little as 1.98 ng/ml
  • Easy-to-use and simple protocol with rapid dissociation step to reduce errors and labor
  • Reliable results through consistent lot-to-lot performance

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Ultrasensitive Detection of 25(OH) Vitamin D

Standard curve for the detection of 25(OH) Vitamin D.


Enabling Your Cardiovascular Research

Cardiovascular disease is consistently ranked as the single largest cause of death in the world, and it may be caused by heart damage or vascular problems. Challenges in cardiovascular clinical development have caused researchers to take a closer look at cardiac function and metabolism. Enzo Life Sciences offers a comprehensive portfolio of products to enable discovery of cardiac risk factors as well as analysis of the cellular response to novel therapeutics for cardiovascular medicine.

From target discovery and validation to formulation and manufacturing, Enzo offers a line of products and services that can accelerate your cardiovascular program. Choose from an extensive range of assay kits, enzymes, substrates, and compound libraries for primary and secondary screening, immunodetection assays for reliable biomarker detection, and cytotoxicity assays for in vitro drug safety assessment. Our aim is to deliver innovative tools that make cardiovascular research more efficient, cost-effective and successful.

Our Technological Depth is our Strength


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