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Predictive Toxicology

Innovative Solutions for Early Safety Assessment

 Predictive Toxicology

Predictive toxicology is a pivotal aspect of modern drug development, utilizing advanced scientific techniques to foresee potential adverse effects of drug candidates. By leveraging in vitro, in silico, and in vivo approaches, predictive toxicology aims to provide early insights into the safety profile of drug candidates, enabling efficient decision-making in drug development. This proactive approach not only mitigates risks but also reduces the likelihood of late-stage failures, saving time and resources.

Enzo’s broad range of scientific expertise and industry-proven manufacturing capabilities provides a comprehensive set of solutions for predictive toxicology when determining genotoxicity, membrane integrity, autophagy, and oxidative stress. Our products are reliable, cost-effective, and compatible with high-throughput capabilities.

With over 45 years of experience and manufacturing excellence, Enzo’s overarching goal is to provide innovative tools that enhance the efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and overall success of drug development endeavors

Enzo's products and services can help to streamline operations, making drug development more accessible and efficient.


Innovative Solutions for Early Safety Assessment

Cell Viability

Cell viability testing is crucial for evaluating the impact of compounds on living cells, providing essential insights for safer and more effective drug development.

Cellular Dysfunction

Understanding cellular dysfunction is crucial in assessing drug candidate safety. Early identification of compounds inducing dysfunction allows for timely adjustments in drug development.

Aggresomal Response

The presence of aggresomes may indicate cellular stress and dysfunction, allowing for the early identification of potential toxic effects induced by drugs or other substances.


Identifying genotoxic drug compounds during early preclinical studies allows for further lead refinement and lower drug attrition.

Organ-Specific Toxicity

Focused investigation helps identify and mitigate risks associated with drug-induced harm to specific organs, contributing to the development of safer and more targeted pharmacological interventions.

Metabolic Abnormalities

A comprehensive understanding of drug-induced endocrine and metabolism abnormalities is essential for predicting adverse reactions, guiding drug design, and optimizing treatment strategies.

Cell Viability

Detect Adverse Effects Early On

Evaluating the health of cells through viability testing is fundamental. This essential process provides valuable insights into how compounds may affect the well-being and functionality of living cells, contributing significantly to the quest for a safer and a more effective drug development.

Utilizing Enzo’s advanced in vitro assays, potential toxicity of drug candidates can be assessed early on.


GFP-CERTIFIED® Apoptosis/Necrosis Detection Kit

Distinguishing between apoptosis and necrosis provides valuable insights into the specific pathways through which a drug induces cell death, aiding researchers in assessing the safety and efficacy of potential drug candidates.

  • Readily distinguishes between healthy, early apoptotic, late apoptotic and necrotic cells
  • Optimized for both fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry applications
  • Specifically designed for use with GFP-expressing cell lines and cells expressing blue or cyan fluorescent proteins (BFPs, CFPs)

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Multiplex Healthy, Early Apoptotic, Late Apoptotic, and Necrotic Cells

GFP-CERTIFIED® Apoptosis/Necrosis Detection Kit (ENZ-51002) detects four distinct cell states. Mitochondrial GFP-expressing HeLa cells were treated with 2μM Staurosporine for 4 hours. The apoptosis detection reagent (gold) and necrosis detection reagent (red) specifically detect cell states with clear spectral separation from mitochondria-associated GFP signal. Healthy cells (A), cells undergoing apoptosis (B), cells undergoing late-stage apoptosis (C), and necrotic cells (D).


Cellular Dysfunction

Understand Cellular Toxicity Mechanisms

Understanding how drug candidates may impact critical cellular processes, aids in the prediction of the compound's overall effect on the cell. Compounds that induce significant dysfunction may pose risks to overall organism health, and early identification allows for appropriate adjustments in drug development.

Enzo’s CELLESTIAL® Assays for drug safety & in vitro toxicology provide a comprehensive set of solutions for monitoring cellular processes, aiding in tailoring drug development strategies to enhance therapeutic effectiveness.


MITO-ID® Membrane Potential Cytotoxicity Kit

New drugs or compounds can selectively affect mitochondrial processes, such as membrane potential, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and calcium homeostasis, thus contributing to toxicity. Enzo’s MITO-ID® Membrane Potential Cytotoxicity Kit is a real-time mitochondrial membrane potential assay suitable for time-course studies evaluating intact and compromised mitochondria.

  • 10x more sensitive than JC-1 with superior aqueous solubility
  • Photostable dual-emission dye
  • Suitable for high-throughput applications

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MITO-ID® dye is 10X more sensitive than JC-1

Detect mitochondrial perturbations with 10 times more sensitivity than JC-1. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was evaluated in HeLa cells treated with CCCP using MITO-ID® dye (red) or JC-1 (blue). Using a conventional fluorescence microplate reader, MMP was shown to decrease with increasing CCCP concentration as indicated by a decrease in orange fluorescence. Improved aqueous solubility of the dye and no-wash protocol minimizes variability, leading to a higher Z-factor (> 0.9) than that obtained with JC-1.

Aggresomal Response

Assess Cellular Stress Response

The presence of aggresomes, or inclusion bodies of misfolded and/or aggregated proteins, is often linked to cellular toxicity. Aggresomes may indicate cellular stress and dysfunction, allowing for the early identification of potential toxic effects induced by drugs or other substances.


PROTEOSTAT® Aggresome Detection Kit

Detect and quantify aggresomes in cells using PROTEOSTAT® Aggresome Detection Kit, a robust and highly sensitive assay for toxicity assessment during drug discovery and development.

  • Reliable and simple assay doesn’t require non-physiological protein mutations or genetically engineered cell lines
  • Validated with small molecule modulators demonstrating suitability for screening compounds of potential therapeutic value
  • Useful for the study of toxicology, neurodegenerative diseases, liver disease, and much more

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Detection of Aggresomes in HeLa Cells

Detection of aggresomes in HeLa cells, treated with proteosome inhibitor MG-132 for 12 hours with (A) PROTEOSTAT® Aggresome Detection Kit (ENZ-51035) (red), (B) aggresome marker p62 antibody conjugated with fluorescein (green).
(C) Composite image shows co-localization of aggresomes and p62 (yellow).


Identifying genotoxic drug compounds during early preclinical studies allows for further lead refinement and lower drug attrition. Mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and adverse genetic effects, especially those that affect the germline, are routinely tested. Common assays for mutagenicity, both in vitro and in vivo, identify mutagenic hazards and mitigate risk for regulatory approval.


DNA Damage ELISA kit

Exposure of cells to oxidative and environmental stresses frequently results in the breakdown or oxidation of genomic DNA. DNA Damage ELISA kit is a colorimetric solution to evaluate the integrity of genomic DNA, or to assess the presence of oxidized DNA and is frequently used as means of verifying the onset of apoptosis or DNA damage.

  • Highly sensitive measurements, detecting as low as 1 ng/ml of 8-OHdG
  • Also detects 8-hydroxyguanosine (product of oxidative RNA damage) and 8-hydroxyguanine (product of oxidative DNA damage by hydroxyl radicals)
  • Reliable and validated in-house in a variety of sample matrices including serum, saliva, urine, plasma, cell lysates and DNA extract

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Sensitive measurement of DNA Damage

Standard curve of DNA damage ELISA kit detecting as low as 1 ng/ml of 8-OHdG


Organ-Specific Toxicity

Understanding the potential toxicities directed at specific organs is paramount for ensuring the safety and efficacy of a drug candidate. This focused investigation allows to identify and mitigate risks associated with drug-induced harm to particular organs, contributing to the development of safer and more targeted pharmacological interventions.


SCREEN-WELL® Toxicity Libraries

Enzo's SCREEN-WELL® compound libraries are a unique collection of focused small molecules with defined and diverse organ-associated toxicity profiles. A variety of structurally and mechanistically different compound classes is included, as well as non-toxic controls.

  • Hundreds of compounds of defined and diverse toxicity
  • Essential standards for predictive toxicology screening
  • Individual bulk compounds and custom libraries available

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Tamoxifen, a compound included in Enzo’s SCREEN-WELL® Hepatotoxicity Library, is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), is commonly used in the treatment of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Considered generally safe and effective, it can occasionally cause hepatotoxicity. Tamoxifen and its metabolites can undergo bioactivation by cytochrome P450 enzymes, leading to the formation of reactive intermediates that can damage liver cells.


Metabolic Abnormalities

Drug-induced endocrine and metabolism disorders include electrolyte and calcium abnormalities, carbohydrate metabolism, and thyroid and gonadal disorders. A critical understanding of endocrine effects can better predict drug-induced adverse effects for a better choice of drug design and treatment rationale.


Cortisol ELISA Kit

Monitoring cortisol levels can provide valuable insights into the impact of drugs on the endocrine system and metabolic homeostasis. Changes in cortisol levels may indicate stress, alterations in energy metabolism, or potential adverse effects on the adrenal glands.

  • Detects low levels of cortisol in biological matrices including culture supernatants, plasma, serum, saliva, and urine from any species
  • Highly cited in peer reviewed literature
  • Lot-to-lot consistency

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Accurately Detect Cortisol with Exceptional Consistency Across Multiple Production Lots

Lot-to-lot consistency graph demonstrates the robust and reproducible nature of the Cortisol ELISA kit showing standard curves from 8 lots manufactured over 7 years.


Enabling Your Safety Assessment

Reduce the risk of your drug discovery pipeline with our cell-based assays, activity kits, and reagents for mechanism and pathway analysis and biomarker detection. Enzo’s broad range of scientific expertise and industry-proven manufacturing capabilities provides a comprehensive set of solutions for the toxicology market when determining cell viability, cellular dysfunction, genotoxicity, organ-specific toxicity and metabolic abnormalities

Enzo's offerings and solutions are designed to enhance operational efficiency, simplifying processes and increasing accessibility in the field of drug development.

Facilitating Predictive Toxicology to Ensure Drug Safety


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