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Featured Passed Webinars

The most enigmatic blood circulation of our body:
3D models of splenic microvasculature based on immunostained serial sections

In vertebrates, a special secondary lymphatic organ, the spleen, is responsible for immunological survey of the blood. This task necessitates an astonishing solution for directly confronting T- and B-lymphocytes and macrophages with blood-borne materials: In humans and rodents, the arterial and the venous side of the splenic microcirculation are completely separated by a gap. This gap is filled by connective tissue of the splenic cords. Thus, blood leaves the open ends of the arterial capillary network, freely traverses the cords and then enters the venous sinuses from the outside via functional slits in their walls. On its way across the cords, the blood flows along the cell membranes of fibroblasts and of a large population of highly active macrophages without any barrier formed by endothelial cells. In humans, in addition to the sinuses, there is a second spleen-specific type of microvessel, the sheathed capillaries, which feed the capillary network.
We used Enzo chromogens in light microscopic triple staining of serial sections to definitively demonstrate that the arterial and the venous side of the human splenic microvasculature lack any connections. This was possible by detecting open capillary ends and by visualizing their unique morphology in 3D models viewed in virtual reality. Our method also permitted defining sheathed capillaries as post-arteriolar vessels surrounded by sheaths consisting of special stromal sheath cells, macrophages and recirculating B-lymphocytes. The sheaths most likely represent the splenic entry compartment for all types of antigens and particulate substances from the blood, because they are irrigated by open side branches of their capillary. Using 3D models based on immunohistology in transmitted light we are able to settle the 170-year-long debate of open versus closed circulation in the human spleen and provide previously unseen insight into the tissue microanatomy of the spleen.

Main Target Audience: Anatomists, Physiologists; Histologists; Clinical Laboratories; Hospitals; - Researchers interested in the following topics: Anatomy, The cardiovascular system, Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Histology, blood circulation, Immunology, Pathology

Why should you attend?: Whether you are a scientist, a student, a lab technician, or a curious citizen, this webinar will provide fascinating new anatomic insight into the architecture of the spleen and highlight captivating, state-of-the art digital visualization of immunohistochemistry results, a method which forms the pillar of our anatomical understanding since over a century.

Presented by: Prof. Dr. Birte Steiniger
Professor emeritus and head of Department of Immunobiology
Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Marburg

Prof. Dr. Oleg Lobachev
Professor for IT-Security and Artificial Intelligence
Leibniz University of Applied Sciences, Hannover

Topic: IHC, Immunology

Deciphering human B cells complexity in health and disease

B cells are responsible for the humoral immune response against pathogens. They mature with age in response to the environment, refining their antigen receptors. Their functions are extremely complex and go beyond the production of specific antibodies. Therefore, any glitch occurring in the sophisticated B cell machinery can lead to pathology, from immunodeficiency to autoimmunity. Understanding the different subpopulations of human B cells and their functions is key to unravel defects in B cells in patients with immunodeficiency and autoimmunity.
We investigated B cell functions in infancy and throughout childhood, through in vitro functional tests. We show that T-independent stimulation with CpG measures proliferation and the differentiation potential of memory B cells. Switched memory B cells respond better than IgM memory B cells. During childhood, the production of plasmablasts in response to CpG increases with age mirroring the development of memory B cells. On the other hand, CD40L, a T-dependent stimulus, does not induce plasma cell differentiation, but causes proliferation of naive and memory B cells. The response to CD40L does not change with age. Finally, in patients with selective IgA deficiency (SIgAD), we observed that switched memory B cells are reduced due to the absence of IgA memory B cells. In agreement, IgA plasma cells are not generated in response to CpG. Unexpectedly, B cells from SIgAD patients show a reduced proliferative response to CD40L. Summary: I will report our experience on the study of B cell functions in infancy and throughout childhood and show how the proliferative potential, plasmablast differentiation and immunoglobulin secretion of B cell subsets can be reliably assessed in children through T-independent activation by the TLR9 agonist CpG. We also demonstrate how B cells respond to T-dependent co-stimulation. Finally, we show that in vitro functional tests can support physicians in assessing the state of the humoral immune system of patients with immune defects.

Main Target Audience: Anyone interested in human B cell biology. Research scientists in the academic and clinical field, at any career stage.

Why should you attend?: A clear and detailed description of in vitro B cell responses to different stimuli is crucial in order to design standardized and reproducible functional tests. Dr Marasco will talk about his experience on the study of B cell functions in children and young adults, providing an example of how in vitro functional tests could be conducted and interpreted in everyday clinical practice.

Presented by: Dr Emiliano Marasco, MD
Division of Rheumatology, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Topic: Immunology

Dolutegravir Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinases: Functional mechanism underlying developmental neuro-abnormalities

ADolutegravir (DTG) is a first-line antiretroviral drug used in combination therapy for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. Due to roll out of generic DTG-based regimen and rising pretreatment resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) in resource limited countries (RLCs), 15 million HIV-1 infected people will be treated with DTG by year 2025. This includes women of child-bearing age who remain a significant infected population. However, growing data have suggested that DTG is associated with birth defects and postnatal developmental neurologic abnormalities following periconceptional usage and thus, concerns have emerged for its usage in pregnant women or those of child-bearing age. To this end, uncovering an underlying mechanism for DTG-associated adverse fetal neurodevelopmental outcomes has gained clinical and basic research interest. We now report that DTG inhibits matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activities that could affect fetal neurodevelopment. DTG was found to be a broad-spectrum MMPs inhibitor. It was more potent MMPs inhibitor than doxycycline. DTG was found to bind Zn++ at the catalytic domain to inhibit MMPs activities. Moreover, inhibition of MMPs activity was found to be an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) class effect. Studies performed in pregnant mice showed that DTG readily reaches to the fetal central nervous system (CNS) during gestation and inhibits MMPs activity during critical period of brain development. Further postnatal evaluation of brain health in mice pups identified neuroinflammation and neuronal damage following in utero DTG exposure. Thus, we conclude that DTG inhibition of MMPs activities during gestation has the potential to affect pre- and post-natal neurodevelopment.

Summary: With an increased coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for pregnant and breastfeeding women worldwide, >1 million HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children are born every year. With recommended wide-spread use of DTG-based regimen worldwide during pregnancy and increased concerns about DTG-associated neurodevelopmental abnormalities, there is an urgent need to identify unknown adverse drug effects on CNS development and underlying mechanism. Prior works focused on determining relationships between folate levels or transport pathways and DTG-associated birth defects failed to conclusively generate any cause-effect relationships. To this end, we show, for the first time, that DTG inhibits activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) during critical period of fetal CNS development, which could affect postnatal neurologic outcomes.

Main Target Audience: Anyone studying neural development, neuroscience, metalloproteinases (MMPs), pharmacology, immunology, inflammation, or human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Also has relevance to clinicians.

Why should you attend?: In this webinar, Dr. Bade will discuss a potential link between neurodevelopmental abnormalities and antiviral dolutegravir treatment in pregnant women. You will learn how a mechanism of metalloproteinase inhibition in the prenatal brain of mice may explain these abnormalities.

Presented by: Aditya N. Bade, PhD
University of Nebraska Medical Center; Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience

Topic: Neuroscience

VHL-mediated ubiquitination of the kinase Mps1 regulates the mitotic checkpoint in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

Abnormal chromosome segregation during mitosis causes aneuploidy, a hallmark of cancers associated with high risk for tumorigenesis, which is normally regulated by the mitotic checkpoint. Mps1 kinase activity is essential for spindle checkpoint signaling. Mps1 is over-expressed in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and requires the molecular chaperone Hsp90 for its activity. Mps1 phosphorylates Hsp90, regulating chaperone function of numerous oncogenic client proteins, including Mps1, and conferring tumor selectivity of Hsp90 inhibitors in ccRCC. The most frequent alteration leading to ccRCC is loss of von Hippel Lindau (VHL), the recognition subunit of an E3-ubiquitin ligase complex that targets proteins for degradation. As Mps1 is over-expressed in ccRCC, the objective of the current study was to determine whether Mps1 gets targeted for degradation by VHL and whether this regulates the mitotic checkpoint. Mps1 kinase is ubiquitinated by a VHL containing E3-ubiquitin ligase complex and Mps1 activity is essential for its ubiquitination. Re-expression of VHL in VHL-null ccRCC cell lines leads to proteasomal degradation of Mps1. VHL degrades Mps1 in an oxygen independent manner by ubiquitination of Mps1-K86, K827, and K848. Mps1 ubiquitination regulates cell cycle progression via exit from the mitotic checkpoint. Mps1 is targeted for degradation by the tumor suppressor VHL in a hypoxia-independent manner and Mps1 is over-expressed in VHL-null ccRCC. VHL-mediated ubiquitination of Mps1 regulates mitotic checkpoint progression. Mps1 stability additionally mediates Hsp90 post-translational modification and tumor selectivity of Hsp90 inhibitors.

Summary: Cell cycle dysregulation is a common driver of tumorigenesis. In clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), the mitotic checkpoint is disrupted via the loss of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex subunit VHL which contributes to over expression of Mps1 and disrupted cell cycle exit from the mitotic checkpoint. Therefore, VHL-mediated ubiquitination of Mps1 regulates mitotic checkpoint progression. Further, Mps1 stability additionally mediates Hsp90 post-translational modification and effectiveness of Hsp90 inhibitors in treating cancer, providing insight for future treatment options for ccRCC.

Main Target Audience: Anyone studying the cell cycle, ubiquitination, protein folding, chaperones, cancer, post translational modifications, mitosis. Likely academic scientists.

Why should you attend?: In this webinar, Dr. Woodford will explain vital aspects of the cell cycle and how disruptions result in cancer. You will learn about the relationship between protein expression, modification, and degradation and how they regulate the mitotic checkpoint. You will also learn how this fascinating biological relationship can be exploited to develop successful cancer treatments.

Presented by: Dr. Mark Woodford, PhD
Assistant professor
Department of Urology, SUNY Upstate Medical University

Topic: Cancer

The value of in situ detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and proteins in understanding the pathophysiology of severe COVID-19

Understanding the histopathology of COVID-19 has proven to be a major gateway to understanding the molecular mechanisms through which SARS-CoV-2 manifests disease. The group of Dr. Nuovo has contributed significantly to understanding the pathophysiology of severe COVID-19 and utilized Enzo’s AMPIVIEW SARS-CoV-2 RNA probes kit in the process. He will present the highlights of his group’s findings in Enzo’s webinar series. Amongst them: 1. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in situ shows that productive infection predominates in the nasopharynx and lung; 2. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 proteins (nucleocapsid, spike, envelope and matrix) show that spike is avidly endocytosed via the vascular system in several sites, including the brain and heart; viral RNA is rarely evident in these sites; 3. Correlation of the host response to the in situ localization of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and spike protein shows that each are associated with increased expression of proinflammatory proteins including TNFa and IL6 as well as complement activation.

Main Target Audience: Pathophysiologists; Clinical Laboratories; Hospitals; Histologists; Virologists - Researchers interested in the following topics: Coronavirus, in situ Hybridization (ISH); Antibodies; Clinical Diagnostics; DNA/Protein Labeling, HPV, Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Immunology, Inflammation, Pathology, Virology.

Why should you attend?: Whether you are a scientist, a student, a lab technician, or a curious citizen, this webinar will provide fascinating mechanistic insight into the pathophysiology of severe COVID-19, while simultaneously providing a wealth of practical knowledge on the laboratory technologies utilized in detecting viral RNA and proteins, especially in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry.

Presented by: Dr. Gerard J. Nuovo
Professor of Pathology
Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center

Topic: Clinical

Deciphering the effect of bacteria on protein conformational diseases

Gut dysbiosis is increasingly associated with the pathogenesis of protein conformational diseases such as Parkinson’s and ALS. Therefore, understanding the microbial contribution to protein stability and disease is critical for developing more effective interventions. The Czyz lab employs C. elegans with Enzo’s PROTEOSTAT® AGGREGATION ASSAY kit to detect bacteria-induced changes in the protein folding environment resulting in aggregation and pathogenicity. Overall, the Czyz lab reveals that detrimental bacteria disrupt host proteostasis and contribute to disease pathogenesis in the C. elegans model.

Who should attend this webinar?
Anyone interested in neurological health and disease.

Why should you attend this webinar?
Whether you are a scientist, a student, or a curious citizen, this webinar will exemplify real world applications of cutting edge technology for the advancement of neuroscience and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases by identifying underlying causes of protein misfolding.

Presented by: Dr. Daniel Czyz
Assistant Professor
University of Florida

Topic: Neuroscience

7 Simple Tools For Maximizing Your Bioprocess Pipeline

Are you in the bioprocessing field?
If so, let Enzo help you navigate the daunting quality control aspects of your operation by providing 7 simple tools to maximize your bioprocess pipeline. Whether you work in drug discovery, upstream, or downstream bioprocessing, Enzo offers a range of products to help you optimize product integrity, monitor contamination, and maximize yield.

Who should attend this webinar?
Anyone in the bioprocessing field who wants to know more about characterizing their biologic, protein aggregation, formulation optimization, storage and packaging of their biologic, and how to monitor and detect contamination.

Why should you attend this webinar?
To ensure that you are optimizing your bioprocess pipeline to facilitate rigorous and reproducible quality control in order to produce the highest quality product while consistently and reliably scaling your operation.

Presented by: Heather Brown, PhD
Application Scientist

Topic: Bioprocess

How to increase laboratory-based COVID-19 testing capacity

The COVID-19 pandemic is still a big threat for the United States. Diagnostic testing is critical to monitor and contain the disease; however, the increasing testing demand has created a shortage in laboratory-based molecular tests. In this webinar, we highlight the challenges faced by clinical laboratories in ramping up their testing capacity and provide potential solutions. Additionally, we discuss a case study on Enzo Clinical Labs and its ability in managing the COVID-19 clinical testing demand during the outbreak in New York.

Presented by: Albino Troilo
PhD, Sr. Marketing Manager at Enzo

Topic: Clinical

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