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Microcystin-RR

PP2A inhibitor
 
ALX-350-043-C050 50 µg 59.00 USD
 
ALX-350-043-C100 100 µg 87.00 USD
 
ALX-350-043-C250 250 µg 258.00 USD
 
ALX-350-043-C500 500 µg 339.00 USD
 
ALX-350-043-M001 1 mg 601.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 
Arg-Arg analog of microcystin-LR (Prod. No. ALX-350-012). Hepatotoxic, although found to be up to 10-fold less toxic than microcystin-LR on i.p. injection in mice. Potent inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A).

Product Details

Formula:C49H75N13O12
 
MW:1038.2
 
Source:Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa.
 
CAS:111755-37-4
 
Purity:≥95% (HPLC)
 
Identity:Identity determined by MS.
 
Appearance:Clear to whitish film adhered to inside of vial.
 
Solubility:Soluble in 80% aqueous methanol.
 
Shipping:Ambient
 
Long Term Storage:-20°C
 
Handling:For maximum product recovery after thawing, centrifuge the vial before opening the cap.
 
Scientific Background:Microcystins are a group of cyclic heptapeptide hepatotoxins produced by a number of cyanobacterial genera. The most notable of which, and namesake, is the widespread genus Microcystis. Structurally, all microcystins consist of the generalized structure cyclo(-D-Ala1-X2-D-MeAsp3-Y4-Adda5-D-Glu6-Mdha7-). X and Y are variable L-amino acids, D-MeAsp is D-erythro-β-methylaspartic acid and Mdha is N-methyldehydroalanine. Adda is the cyanobacteria unique C20 β-amino acid 3-amino-9-methoxy-2,6,8-trimethyl-10-phenyl-deca-4,6-dienoic acid. Substitutions of the variable L-amino acids at positions 2 and 4 give rise to at least 21 known primary microcystin analogs and alterations in the other constituent amino acids result in more than 90 reported mycrocystins to date.
 
Regulatory Status:RUO - Research Use Only
 
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Product Literature References

A Summer of Cyanobacterial Blooms in Belgian Waterbodies: Microcystin Quantification and Molecular Characterizations: W.H.R. Van Hassel, et al.; Toxins 14, 61 (2022), Abstract;
Adsorption of cyanotoxins on polypropylene and polyethylene terephthalate: Microplastics as vector of eight microcystin analogues: D.S. Moura, et al.; Environ. Pollut. 303, 119135 (2022), Abstract;
Identification of Novel Microcystins Using High-Resolution MS and MSn with Python Code: D. Baliu-Rodriguez, et al.; Environ. Sci. Technol. 56, 1652 (2022), Abstract;
Multiclass cyanotoxin analysis in reservoir waters: Tandem solid-phase extraction followed by zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: M.M. Aparicio-Muriana, et al.; Talanta 237, 122929 (2022), Abstract;
An ELISA-based Method for Variant-independent Detection of Total 3 Microcystins and Nodularins via Multi-immunogen Approach: J. Liu, et al.; Environ. Sci. Technol. 55, 12984 (2021), Abstract;
Degradation of Multiple Peptides by Microcystin-Degrader Paucibacter toxinivorans (2C20): A.A. Santos, et al.; Toxins (Basel) 13, 265 (2021), Abstract; Full Text
Development and field evaluation of the organic-diffusive gradients in thin-films (o-DGT) passive water sampler for microcystins: P. Wong, et al.; Chemosphere 287, 132079 (2021), Abstract;
Health risk assessment related to cyanotoxins exposure of a community living near Tri An Reservoir, Vietnam: T.A.D. Nguyen, et al.; Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 28, 56079 (2021), Abstract;
Influence of refrigeration and freezing in Microcystins and Cylindrospermopsin concentrations on fish muscle of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and tench (Tinca tinca): L. Diez-Quijada, et al.; Food Chem. Toxicol. 158, 112673 (2021), Abstract;
Remediation Strategies to Control Toxic Cyanobacterial Blooms: Effects of Macrophyte Aqueous Extracts on Microcystis aeruginosa (Growth, Toxin Production and Oxidative Stress Response) and on Bacterial Ectoenzymatic Activities: Z. Tazart, et al.; Microorganisms 9, 1782 (2021), Abstract;
Selective interaction of microcystin congeners with zebrafish (Danio rerio) Oatp1d1 transporter: P. Marić, et al.; Chemosphere 283, 131155 (2021), Abstract;
Machine Learning Prediction of Cyanobacterial Toxin (Microcystin) Toxicodynamics in Humans: S. Altaner, et al.; ALTEX 37, 24 (2020), Abstract;
Microcystins and Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806 extracts modulate steroidogenesis differentially in the human H295R adrenal model: V. Mallia, et al.; PLoS One 15, 12 (2020), Abstract; Full Text
Dhb Microcystins Discovered in USA Using an Online Concentration LC-MS/MS Platform: J.A. Birbeck, et al.; Toxins (Basel) 11, 653 (2019), Abstract; Full Text
Are We Underestimating Benthic Cyanotoxins? Extensive Sampling Results from Spain: E. A. Cantoral Uriza, et al.; Toxins (Basel) 9, 385 (2017), Abstract; Full Text
Simple, high efficiency detection of microcystins and nodularin-R in water by fluorescence polarization immunoassay: H. Zhang, et al.; Anal. Chim. Acta 992, 119 (2017), Abstract;
Effect of chlorination on the protein phosphatase inhibition activity for several microcystins: H. Mash, et al.; Water Res. 95, 230 (2016), Abstract;
Hepatotoxic Microcystin Removal Using Pumice Embedded Monolithic Composite Cryogel as an Alternative Water Treatment Method: F. Gurbuz, et al.; Water Res. 90, 337 (2016), Application(s): Injection, Abstract;
Microcystin-RR exposure results in growth impairment by disrupting thyroid endocrine in zebrafish larvae: L. Xie, et al.; Aquat. Toxicol. 164, 16 (2015), Application(s): Cell Culture, Abstract;
Rapid and Sensitive Analysis of Microcystins using Ionic Liquid-based in situ Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction: H. Yu, et al.; J. Chromatogr. A 1406, 10 (2015), Application(s): Cell Culture, Abstract;
Similar uptake profiles of microcystin-LR and-RR in an in vitro human intestinal model: P. Zeller, et al.; Toxicology 290, 7 (2011), Abstract;
The apoptotic effect of oral administration of microcystin-RR on mice liver: P. Huang, et al.; Environ. Toxicol. 26, 443 (2010), Abstract;
Microcystin-RR-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species and alteration of antioxidant systems in tobacco BY-2 cells: L. Yin, et al.; Toxicon. 46, 507 (2005), Abstract;
Physiological and biochemical analyses of microcystin-RR toxicity to the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus: Z.Q. Hu, et al.; Environ. Toxicol. 19, 571 (2004), Abstract;
Determination of some physicochemical parameters of microcystins (cyanobacterial toxins) and trace level analysis in environmental samples using liquid chromatography: C. Rivasseau, et al.; J. Chromatogr. A 799, 155 (1998), Abstract;
Extraction and high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of microcystins in raw and treated waters: L.A. Lawton, et al.; Analyst 119, 1525 (1994), Abstract;
Inhibition of protein phosphatases activates glucose-6-phosphatase in isolated rat hepatocytes: S. Claeyssens, et al.; FEBS Lett. 315, 7 (1993), Abstract;
Toxicity and toxins of natural blooms and isolated strains of Microcystis spp. (Cyanobacteria) and improved procedure for purification of cultures: M. Shirai, et al.; Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57, 1241 (1991), Abstract;
The structure of a cyclic peptide toxin, cyanogenosin-RR from Microcystis aeruginosa: P. Painuly, et al.; THL 29, 11 (1988),

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