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[D-Asp3]microcystin-RR

 
ALX-350-168-C025 25 µg 227.00 USD
 
ALX-350-168-C100 100 µg 488.00 USD
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  • Hepatotoxic
[D-Asp3]microcystin-RR is isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa. This microcystin contains arginine (R) in positions 2 and 4. Additionally, the D-MeAsp at position 3 is demethylated to Asp. [D-Asp3]microcystin-RR is hepatotoxic.

Product Details

Alternative Name:Microcystin-RR (desmethylated), MC-RR (desmethylated)
 
Formula:C48H73N13O12
 
MW:1024.2
 
Source:Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa.
 
Purity:≥95% (HPLC)
 
Identity:Identity determined by MS.
 
Appearance:Pale powder or film.
 
Solubility:Soluble in DMSO or 100% methanol.
 
Shipping:Ambient Temperature
 
Long Term Storage:-20°C
 
Scientific Background:Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes mostly present in freshwater ecosystems. The increasingly frequent appearance of cyanobacteria blooms in lakes and rivers is linked to climate changes and human activities. Microcystins are a group of cyclic heptapeptide hepatotoxins produced by a number of cyanobacterial genera. The most notable of which, and namesake, is the widespread genus Microcystis. Structurally, all microcystins consist of the generalized structure cyclo(-D-Ala1-X2-D-MeAsp3-Y4-Adda5-D-Glu6-Mdha7-). X and Y are variable L-amino acids, D-MeAsp is D-erythro-β-methylaspartic acid and Mdha is N-methyldehydroalanine. Adda is the cyanobacteria unique C20 β-amino acid 3-amino-9-methoxy-2,6,8-trimethyl-10-phenyl-deca-4,6-dienoic acid. Substitutions of the variable L-amino acids at positions 2 and 4 give rise to at least 21 known primary microcystin analogs and alterations in the other constituent amino acids result in more than 90 reported mycrocystins to date.
 
Regulatory Status:RUO - Research Use Only
 
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Product Literature References

A Feasibility Study into the Production of a Mussel Matrix Reference Material for the Cyanobacterial Toxins Microcystins and Nodularins: A.D. Turner, et al.; Toxins 15, 27 (2023), Abstract;
Year-Round Presence of Microcystins and Toxin-Producing Microcystis in the Water Column and Ice Cover of a Eutrophic Lake Located in the Continuous Permafrost Zone (Yakutia, Russia): V. Gabyshev, et al.; Toxins 15, 467 (2023), Abstract;
7-epi-cylindrospermopsin and microcystin producers among diverse Anabaena/Dolichospermum/Aphanizomenon CyanoHABs in Oregon, USA: T.W. Dreher, et al.; Harmful Algae 116, 102241 (2022), Abstract;
An ELISA-based Method for Variant-independent Detection of Total 3 Microcystins and Nodularins via Multi-immunogen Approach: J. Liu, et al.; Environ. Sci. Technol. 55, 12984 (2021), Abstract;
Remediation Strategies to Control Toxic Cyanobacterial Blooms: Effects of Macrophyte Aqueous Extracts on Microcystis aeruginosa (Growth, Toxin Production and Oxidative Stress Response) and on Bacterial Ectoenzymatic Activities: Z. Tazart, et al.; Microorganisms 9, 1782 (2021), Abstract;
Machine Learning Prediction of Cyanobacterial Toxin (Microcystin) Toxicodynamics in Humans: S. Altaner, et al.; ALTEX 37, 24 (2020), Abstract;
Dhb Microcystins Discovered in USA Using an Online Concentration LC-MS/MS Platform: J.A. Birbeck, et al.; Toxins (Basel) 11, 653 (2019), Abstract; Full Text
First observation of microcystin- and anatoxin-a-producing cyanobacteria in the easternmost part of the Gulf of Finland (the Baltic Sea): E. Chernova, et al.; Toxion 157, 18 (2018), Abstract;
Development of an analytical method for the unambiguous structure elucidation of cyclic peptides with special appliance for hepatotoxic desmethylated microcystins: T. Kruger, et al.; Toxicon 54, 302 (2009), Abstract;

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