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Microcystin-LW

 
ALX-350-080-C025 25 µg 185.00 USD
 
ALX-350-080-C100 100 µg 525.00 USD
 
ALX-350-080-M001 1 mg 3,259.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 
Analog of microcystin-LR (Prod. No. ALX-350-012) with Trp substituted in place of Arg. Hydrophobic and believed to be more cell permeable than other microcystins. May prove useful in biochemical studies in intact cells. Microcystin-LW has a characteristically different absorption spectrum compared to other microcystins, making it a useful reference compound for HPLC analysis. The Trp confers an absorption maximum at 222nm, whereas most microcystins have a characteristic maximum at 239nm.

Product Details

Formula:C54H72N8O12
 
MW:1025.2
 
Source:Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa.
 
CAS:157622-02-1
 
Purity:≥95% (HPLC)
 
Identity:Identity determined by MS.
 
Appearance:Whitish film adhered to inside of the vial.
 
Solubility:Soluble in 100% methanol.
 
Shipping:Ambient
 
Long Term Storage:-20°C
 
Handling:For maximum product recovery after thawing, centrifuge the vial before opening the cap.
 
Scientific Background:Microcystins are a group of cyclic heptapeptide hepatotoxins produced by a number of cyanobacterial genera. The most notable of which, and namesake, is the widespread genus Microcystis. Structurally, all microcystins consist of the generalized structure cyclo(-D-Ala1-X2-D-MeAsp3-Y4-Adda5-D-Glu6-Mdha7-). X and Y are variable L-amino acids, D-MeAsp is D-erythro-ß-methylaspartic acid and Mdha is N-methyldehydroalanine. Adda is the cyanobacteria unique C20 ß-amino acid 3-amino-9-methoxy-2,6,8-trimethyl-10-phenyl-deca-4,6-dienoic acid. Substitutions of the variable L-amino acids at positions 2 and 4 give rise to at least 21 known primary microcystin analogs and alterations in the other constituent amino acids result in more than 90 reported mycrocystins to date.
 
Regulatory Status:RUO - Research Use Only
 
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Product Literature References

Comparison of UV-A photolytic and UV/TiO 2 photocatalytic effects on Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7813 and four microcystin analogues: A pilot scale study: I. Menezes, et al.; J. Environ. Manage. 298, 113519 (2021), Abstract;
Remediation Strategies to Control Toxic Cyanobacterial Blooms: Effects of Macrophyte Aqueous Extracts on Microcystis aeruginosa (Growth, Toxin Production and Oxidative Stress Response) and on Bacterial Ectoenzymatic Activities: Z. Tazart, et al.; Microorganisms 9, 1782 (2021), Abstract;
Selective interaction of microcystin congeners with zebrafish (Danio rerio) Oatp1d1 transporter: P. Marić, et al.; Chemosphere 283, 131155 (2021), Abstract;
Ecotoxicological profiling of selected cyanobacterial strains using multi-endpoint effect-directed analysis: P. Marić, et al.; Ecotoxicology 29, 535 (2020), Application(s): Used as standards, Abstract;
Machine Learning Prediction of Cyanobacterial Toxin (Microcystin) Toxicodynamics in Humans: S. Altaner, et al.; ALTEX 37, 24 (2020), Abstract;
Microcystin Toxins at Potentially Hazardous Levels in Algal Dietary Supplements Revealed by a Combination of Bioassay, Immunoassay, and Mass Spectrometric Methods: T. Miller, et al.; J. Agric. Food Chem. 68, 8016 (2020), Abstract; Full Text
Microcystins and Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806 extracts modulate steroidogenesis differentially in the human H295R adrenal model: V. Mallia, et al.; PLoS One 15, 12 (2020), Abstract; Full Text
Dhb Microcystins Discovered in USA Using an Online Concentration LC-MS/MS Platform: J.A. Birbeck, et al.; Toxins (Basel) 11, 653 (2019), Abstract; Full Text
An Innovative Portable Biosensor System for the Rapid Detection of Freshwater Cyanobacterial Algal Bloom Toxins: S.R. Bickman, et al.; Environ. Sci. Technol. 52, 11691 (2018), Abstract;
Development and single-laboratory validation of a UHPLC-MS/MS method for quantitation of microcystins and nodularin in natural water, cyanobacteria, shellfish and algal supplement tablet powders: A.D. Turner, et al.; J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 1074-1075, 111 (2018), Abstract;
First observation of microcystin- and anatoxin-a-producing cyanobacteria in the easternmost part of the Gulf of Finland (the Baltic Sea): E. Chernova, et al.; Toxion 157, 18 (2018), Abstract;
Simple, high efficiency detection of microcystins and nodularin-R in water by fluorescence polarization immunoassay: H. Zhang, et al.; Anal. Chim. Acta 992, 119 (2017), Abstract;
Hepatotoxic Microcystin Removal Using Pumice Embedded Monolithic Composite Cryogel as an Alternative Water Treatment Method: F. Gurbuz, et al.; Water Res. 90, 337 (2016), Application(s): Injection, Abstract;
Selective cytotoxicity of microcystins LR, LW and LF in rat astrocytes: K. Bulc Rozman, et al.; Toxicol. Lett. 15, 1 (2016), Abstract;
Biodegradation of multiple microcystins and cylindrospermopsin in clarifier sludge and a drinking water source: Effects of particulate attached bacteria and phycocyanin: E. Maghsoudi, et al.; Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 120, 409 (2015), Abstract;
Investigation of microcystin congener-dependent uptake into primary murine neurons: D. Feurstein, et al.; Environ. Health Perspect. 118, 1370 (2010), Abstract; Full Text
The role of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs/SLCOs) in the toxicity of different microcystin congeners in vitro: a comparison of primary human hepatocytes and OATP-transfected HEK293 cells: A. Fischer, et al.; Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 245, 9 (2010), Abstract;
Detection and quantification of microcystins (cyanobacterial hepatotoxins) with recombinant antibody fragments isolated from a naive human phage display library: J. McElhiney, et al.; FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 193, 83 (2000), Abstract;
Comparative toxicity of four microcystins of different hydrophobicities to the protozoan, Tetrahymena pyriformis: C.J. Ward & G.A. Codd; J. Appl. Microbiol. 86, 874 (1999), Abstract;
Isolation and characterization of microcystins from laboratory cultures and environmental samples of Microcystis aeruginosa and from an associated animal toxicosis: L.A. Lawton, et al.; Nat. Toxins 3, 50 (1995), Abstract;
Extraction and high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of microcystins in raw and treated waters: L.A. Lawton, et al.; Analyst 119, 1525 (1994), Abstract;

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