Online Purchasing Account You are logged on as Guest. LoginRegister a New AccountShopping cart (Empty)
United States 

Antibody-drug conjugates: a Trojan horse against cancer

Like a Trojan horse, antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) are monoclonal antibodies engineered to go unnoticed, delivering cytotoxic drugs to cells expressing the antigen target. Cancer therapy has become the most prevalent application area, with 30 ADC currently in clinical trials. Successful development of an ADC requires optimization of several elements including the antibody, the potency of the cytotoxic drug, the stability of the linker, the site of conjugation and the stoichiometry of the resulting adducts. Typically, drugs can be linked to antibodies through cysteine or lysine residues resulting in ADC with a heterogenous number of drugs varying between zero and eight per antibody. Variations in drug distribution can have adverse effects on patient health. Antibodies without any drugs are ineffective and compete with ADC for binding to the antigen-expressing cells whilst antibodies with eight drugs have reduced in vivo stability resulting in the non-target related drug release and peripheral toxicity. The importance of homogenous drug distribution per antibody was demonstrated by Jackson and colleagues from Agensys using Herceptin® ADC. To obtain homogeneous ADC, the authors used a site-specific incorporation of a non-natural amino acid at two sites within the Herceptin® antibody. Compared to conventional cysteine-conjugated Herceptin® ADC, the site-specific homogeneous ADC showed superior stability and toxicological profile both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, it might be possible to improve the pharmacokinetics of ADC and possibly improve manufacturing efficiencies by reducing drug load and increasing drug-antibody homogeneity. However, limitations for the above mentioned strategies may arise from the need to engineer different residues that may lead to antibody instability and aggregation.

Enzo Life Sciences offers a comprehensive bioprocess portfolio to optimize and monitor product integrity and efficiency including protein aggregation and thermal shift stability kits, live cell analysis kits and ELISA kits; some of which are described below:

Share this TechNote

Follow Us!

Better Detection Upstream.
Maximize Production Downstream.



  • Jackson D, et al. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of cysteine and site specific conjugated herceptin antibody-drug conjugates. PLoS One (2014) 9: e83865..

Related Products

PROTEOSTAT® Protein aggregation assay 

Quantitative Detection of Protein Aggregates from Visible to Subvisible Particles
Flow Cytometry, Fluorescence microscopy, Fluorescent detection, Microplate | Print as PDF
ENZ-51023-KP050 50 tests 170.00 USD
ENZ-51023-KP002 2x96 tests 453.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?

PROTEOSTAT® Thermal shift stability assay kit 

Accelerated screening for protein stability as a function of pH, ionic strength, and concentration.
Print as PDF
ENZ-51027-K100 100 tests 175.00 USD
ENZ-51027-K400 400 tests 467.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?

PROTEOSTAT® Protein aggregation standards  

The only commercially available protein aggregation standards assay!
Flow Cytometry | Print as PDF
ENZ-51039-KP002 2x96 wells 204.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?

PROTEOSTAT® Protein refolding and aggregation sensing kit  

Identify Optimal Protein Refolding Conditions and Maximize Recovery of Functional Protein
Print as PDF
ENZ-51040-KP002 2x96 wells 360.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?

Protein A ELISA kit 

Most sensitive (9.01 pg/ml)  colorimetric ELISA for monitoring residual contamination.
ELISA, Colorimetric detection | Print as PDF
ADI-900-057 96 wells 438.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?

PEGylated protein ELISA kit 

Validated, Complete Assay for the Sensitive Detection of a Diverse Set of PEGs in Biological Samples
ELISA, Colorimetric detection | Print as PDF
ADI-900-213-0001 96 wells 515.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?

DiSH™ Kit 

Reduce labor time and costs using a novel technology for rapid hybridoma production
Print as PDF
ENZ-71001-0001 1 Kit 1,029.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?

MITO-ID® Membrane potential cytotoxicity kit  

A Real-time Mitochondrial membrane Potential Assay with Superior Sensitivity
HTS, Microplate | Print as PDF
ENZ-51019-KP002 1 Kit 248.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?

CYTO-ID® Autophagy detection kit 

A No-transfection, Quantitative Assay for Monitoring Autophagy in Live Cells
Flow Cytometry, Fluorescence microscopy, Fluorescent detection, HTS | Print as PDF
ENZ-51031-0050 50 tests 201.00 USD
ENZ-51031-K200 200 tests 415.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?

ROS-ID® Hypoxia/Oxidative stress detection kit 

Specific detection system for simultaneous analysis of hypoxia and oxidative stress using microscopy and flow cytometry
Flow Cytometry, Fluorescence microscopy, Fluorescent detection, HTS | Print as PDF
ENZ-51042-0125 125 tests 103.00 USD
ENZ-51042-K500 500 tests 360.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?

Recommend this page

Keep in touch

©2016 Enzo Life Sciences, Inc.,