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LPS from Salmonella minnesota R595 (Re) (TLRgrade™) (Ready-to-Use)

TLR4 activator
 
ALX-581-008-L001 1 ml 134.00 USD
 
ALX-581-008-L002 2 ml 210.00 USD
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Product Specification

Alternative Name:Lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella minnesota R595 (Re)
 
Source:Rough (R)-form LPS, isolated and purified from Salmonella minnesota R595 (Re mutant) by a modification of the PCP extraction method, converted to the uniform sodium salt form and dissolved in sterile pyrogen-free double distilled water.
 
Concentration:1mg/ml
 
Formulation:Liquid. Sterile, ready-to-use solution in pyrogen-free double distilled water.
 
Purity:Absence of detectable protein or DNA contaminants with agonistic TLR activity.
 
Activity:Strong activator of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. Does not activate TLR2 or other TLRs as determined with splenocytes and macrophages from TLR4 deficient mice. No further re-extraction required. Smooth (S)-form LPS are commonly the preferred choice for whole animal studies, whereas Rough (R)-form LPS are primarily used in cellular in vitro activation studies.
 
Shipping:Ambient
 
Long Term Storage:+4°C
 
Use/Stability:Stable for at least 1 year after receipt when stored at +4°C.
 
Handling:Do not ingest. Wear gloves and mask when handling this product! Avoid contact through all modes of exposure. LPS compounds are highly pyrogenic. Avoid accidental injection; extreme care should be taken when handling in conjunction with hypodermic syringes. Use must be restricted to qualified personnel.
 
lps
Figure: Activation of macrophages from TLR4 wild type compared to TLR4 deficient mice by LPS and Lipid A from ALEXIS. Lipid A or LPS concentrations, which induced maximal activation of  TLR4 wild type mouse macrophages, were also applied to TLR4 deficient mouse macrophages. 10 units of IL-6 correspond to the detection limit of the IL-6 ELISA.
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Product Literature References

Accurate quantification of sphingosine-1-phosphate in normal and Fabry disease plasma, cells and tissues by LC-MS/MS with 13C-encoded natural S1P as internal standard: M. Mirzaian, et al.; Clin. Chim. Acta 459, 36 (2016), Application(s): Cell culture, Abstract;
A Cholera Conjugate Vaccine Containing O-specific Polysaccharide (OSP) of V. cholerae O1 Inaba and Recombinant Fragment of Tetanus Toxin Heavy Chain (OSP:rTTHc) Induces Serum, Memory and Lamina Proprial Responses against OSP and Is Protective in Mice: M.A. Sayeed, et al.; PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 9, e0003881 (2015), Application(s): Drug application using mouse splenocytes, Abstract; Full Text
Development of a cell system for siRNA screening of pathogen responses in human and mouse macrophages: N. Li, et al.; Sci. Rep. 5, 9559 (2015), Abstract; Full Text
Fasting and refeeding differentially regulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation in human subjects: J. Traba, et al.; J. Clin. Invest. 125, 4592 (2015), Application(s): Cell culture , Abstract; Full Text
The macrophage LBP gene is an LXR target that promotes macrophage survival and atherosclerosis: T. Sallam, et al.; J. Lipid Res. 55, 1120 (2014), Abstract;
Bone marrow NR4A expression is not a dominant factor in the development of atherosclerosis or macrophage polarization in mice: L.C. Chao, et al.; J. Lipid Res. 54, 806 (2013), Abstract; Full Text
MyD88 signaling in nonhematopoietic cells protects mice against induced colitis by regulating specific EGF receptor ligands: K. Brandl, et al.; PNAS 10, 19967 (2010), Abstract; Full Text
R-form LPS, the master key to the activation ofTLR4/MD-2-positive cells: M. Huber, et al.; Eur. J. Immunol. 36, 701 (2006), Abstract;
CD14 is required for MyD88-independent LPS signaling: Z. Jiang, et al.; Nat. Immunol. 6, 565 (2005), Abstract;
CD36 is a sensor of diacylglycerides: K. Hoebe, et al.; Nature 433, 523 (2005), Abstract;
Toll-like receptor 9-induced type I IFN protects mice from experimental colitis: K. Katakura, et al.; J. Clin. Invest. 115, 695 (2005), Abstract; Full Text
Oligosaccharides of Hyaluronan activate dendritic cells via toll-like receptor 4: C. Termeer, et al.; J. Exp. Med. 195, 99 (2002), Abstract; Full Text
Isolation and purification of R-form lipopolysaccharides: C. Galanos & O. Lüderitz; Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry 9, 11 (1993), Abstract;
Electrodialysis of lipopolysaccharides and their conversion to uniform salt forms: C. Galanos & O. Lüderitz; Eur. J. Biochem. 54, 603 (1975), Abstract;
A new method for the extraction of R lipopolysaccharides: C. Galanos, et al.; Eur. J. Biochem. 9, 245 (1969), Abstract;

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