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Leptin

Leptin is a 16kDa cytokine like adipokine encoded by the obese (ob) gene, which mainly acts through the central nervous system (CNS) [1]. Leptin initiates inhibition of food intake and stimulates energy expenditure by activating receptors on neurons in the hypothalamus. While the circulating leptin level is proportional to the mass of WAT in order to control the energy metabolism, elevated leptin levels observed in obesity fail to promote this effect, a phenomenon also known as leptin resistance. However, the central action of leptin is not limited to food intake and energy expenditure. Leptins pleiotropic effects also infl uence immunity, reproduction, glucose metabolism, hematopoiesis and bone development. Leptin is thought to act also on peripheral tissues such as skeletal muscle or pancreas.

Leptin binds to the leptin receptor (OB-R; CD295) encoded by the diabetes (db) gene. Among six different splice forms (Ob-Ra through Ob-Rf),the long isoform Ob-Rb is required for the physiologic actions of leptin. The receptor is expressed at high levels at different sites of the hypothalamus. It has been shown, that leptin receptor activation at these sites inhibits the synthesis of appetite-promoting peptides neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) [2]. In addition, leptin binding activates the synthesis of satiety peptides such as products of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) [2].

Leptin signaling (see Figure 1) involves Janus kinase 2 (Jak2)-mediated phosphorylation of two tyrosine residues within the cytoplasmic tail of the receptor [3]. Phosphorylation of Tyr985 activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling pathway [4, 5], while phosphorylation of Tyr1138 activates signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) [3]. Jak2 also phosphorylates insulin receptor substrate-1 and -2, resulting in activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway [6, 7]. Intrinsic activation of the receptor is controlled by a signaling inhibitor, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) [3, 8]. A recent study indicates that central leptin controls lipogenesis by engaging the PI3K pathway as well as the endocannabinoid system of adipocytes [9].

Literature References
  1. Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue: Y. Zhang, et al.; Nature 372, 425 (1994)
  2. Leptin signaling in the central nervous system and the periphery: C. Bjorbaek & B. B. Kahn; Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 59, 305 (2004)
  3. Molecular and anatomical determinants of central leptin resistance: H. Munzberg & M. G. Myers, Jr.; Nat. Neurosci. 8, 566 (2005)
  4. Divergent roles of SHP-2 in ERK activation by leptin receptors: C. Bjorbaek, et al.; J. Biol. Chem. 276, 4747 (2001)
  5. Neuronal Shp2 tyrosine phosphatase controls energy balance and metabolism: E. E. Zhang, et al.; PNAS 101, 16064 (2004)
  6. Intracellular signaling. Key enzyme in leptin-induced anorexia: K. D. Niswender, et al.; Nature 413, 794 (2001)
  7. PI3K integrates the action of insulin and leptin on hypothalamic neurons: A. W. Xu, et al.; J. Clin. Invest. 115, 951 (2005)
  8. Mechanisms of leptin action and leptin resistance: M. G. Myers, et al.; Annu. Rev. Physiol. 70, 537 (2008)
  9. Leptin controls adipose tissue lipogenesis via central, STAT3-independent mechanisms: C. Buettner, et al.; Nat. Med. 14, 667 (2008)

Leptin Proteins

Leptin (human), (recombinant) 

177404-21-6, Produced in E. coli. Homologous to human serum leptin., ≥95% (SDS-PAGE; reducing and non-reducing) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-201-034-M001 1 mg 199.00 USD
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Leptin (human), (recombinant) (>95%) 

177404-21-6, Produced in E. coli., ≥95% (HPLC & SDS-PAGE) | Print as PDF
 
BML-SE161-0001 1 mg 217.00 USD
 
BML-SE161-0005 5 mg 879.00 USD
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Leptin (mouse), (recombinant) 

181030-10-4, Produced in E. coli. Homologous to mouse serum leptin., ≥98% (SDS-PAGE) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-201-035-M001 1 mg 255.00 USD
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Leptin (mouse), (recombinant) 

181030-10-4, Produced in E. coli., ≥95% (SDS-PAGE) | Print as PDF
 
BML-SE160-0001 1 mg 225.00 USD
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Leptin (rat), (recombinant) 

Produced in E. coli. Homologous to rat serum leptin., ≥98% (SDS-PAGE) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-201-231-M001 1 mg 255.00 USD
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Leptin Antibodies

Leptin (rat) monoclonal antibody (RLEP 227) 

ELISA, WB | Print as PDF
 
ALX-804-701-C050 50 µg 230.00 USD
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Leptin polyclonal antibody 

Purified from rabbit serum., ELISA, WB | Print as PDF
 
BML-SA268-0100 100 µg 339.00 USD
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Leptin polyclonal antibody 

ICC, IHC (FS), WB | Print as PDF
 
ALX-210-105-R050 50 µl 494.00 USD
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Leptin Kits

Leptin (human), ELISA kit 

ELISA, Colorimetric detection | Print as PDF
 
ADI-900-028A 96 wells 424.00 USD
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Leptin (mouse), ELISA kit 

ELISA, Colorimetric detection | Print as PDF
 
ADI-900-019A 96 wells 424.00 USD
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Leptin (rat), ELISA kit 

ELISA, Colorimetric detection | Print as PDF
 
ADI-900-015A 96 wells 511.00 USD
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Leptin Receptors

Leptin receptor polyclonal antibody 

WB | Print as PDF
 
ALX-210-168-R100 100 µl 607.00 USD
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