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CYTO-ID® Autophagy detection kit 2.0

A brighter and more photostable, no-transfection, quantitative assay for monitoring autophagy in live  cells
ENZ-KIT175-0050 50 tests 285.00 USD
ENZ-KIT175-0200 200 tests 603.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
  • Brighter, more photostable dye specifically stains autophagic vesicles
  • Rapid, no transfection required
  • Negligible staining of lysosomes reduces background seen with other dyes
  • Facilitates high-throughput screening of activators and inhibitors of autophagy
  • Widely cited
Enzo Life Sciences CYTO-ID® Autophagy Detection Kit 2.0 measures autophagic vacuoles and monitors autophagic flux in lysosomally inhibited live cells using a novel dye that selectively labels accumulated autophagic vacuoles. The 488nm-excitable green dye has been optimized through the identification of titratable functional moieties that allow for minimal staining of lysosomes while exhibiting bright fluorescence upon incorporation into pre-autophagosomes, autophagosomes, and autolysosomes (autophagolysosomes). The kit also includes the Hoechst 33342 dye for the nuclear staining, an Autophagy Inducer (Rapamycin) and a Lysosomal Inhibitor (Chloroquine).

Mechanism of Action
The probe is a cationic amphiphilic tracer (CAT) dye that rapidly partitions into cells in a similar manner as drugs that induce phospholipidosis. Careful selection of titratable functional moieties on the dye prevents its accumulation within lysosomes, but enables labeling of vacuoles associated with the autophagy pathway.
CYTO-ID® Autophagy detection kit 2.0 Flow Cytometry
Flow cytometry-based profiling of autophagy in Jurkat cells. Jurkat cells were untreated or treated with 0.5µM Rapamycin (RAP), 10µM Chloroquine (CLQ) or both for 20h. After staining with CYTO-ID® Green Detection Reagent 2 for 30min, cells were washed and analyzed by flow cytometry. Results are presented as histogram overlay. Cells treated with RAP + CLQ show an increase in fluorescence.
CYTO-ID® Autophagy detection kit 2.0 image
Schematic depiction of autophagy. Cytosolic material is sequestered by an expanding membrane sac, the phagophore, resulting in the formation of a double-membrane vesicle, an autophagosome. The outer membrane of the autophagosome subsequently fuses with the lysosome, and the internal material is degraded in the autolysosome. Various regulators of autophagy are also depicted in the diagram.
CYTO-ID® Autophagy detection kit 2.0 Microscopy
HeLa cells were stained with CYTO-ID® Green Detection Reagent 2 after being cultured in (A) full media or (B) starvation media (EBSS) with 40µM Chloroquine for 4h. Cells starved in EBSS in the presence of Chloroquine showed very bright green fluorescent signals and punctate structures.
CYTO-ID® Autophagy detection kit 2.0 Spectra
Absorbance and fluorescence emission spectra (499/548nm) for CYTO-ID® Green Detection Reagent 2 (panel A) were determined in PBS. Absorbance and fluorescence emission spectra (350/461nm) for Hoechst 33342 (panel B) were determined in 1X Assay Buffer.
CYTO-ID® Autophagy detection kit 2.0 AutophagyInduction
Microplate-based profiling of autophagy in HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells were stained CYTO-ID® Green Detection Reagent 2 after being cultured for 20h in DMSO (control), 0.5 µM Rapamycin (Rap), 10µM Chloroquine (CLQ), or both 0.5µM Rap and 10µM CLQ. Cells were also stained with Hoechst 33342 for cell number normalization. Cells treated with both Rapamycin and Chloroquine had an increase in autophagy, as measured by the CYTO-ID® Green Detection Reagent 2.
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CYTO-ID® Autophagy detection kit 2.0 Flow Cytometry CYTO-ID® Autophagy detection kit 2.0 image CYTO-ID® Autophagy detection kit 2.0 Microscopy CYTO-ID® Autophagy detection kit 2.0 Spectra CYTO-ID® Autophagy detection kit 2.0 AutophagyInduction

Product Details

Applications:Flow Cytometry, Fluorescence microscopy, Fluorescent detection, HTS
Application Notes:The CYTO-ID® Autophagy detection kit 2.0 provides a rapid, specific, and quantitative approach for monitoring autophagy in live cells by fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and microplate reader.
Quality Control:Microscopy: When CYTO-ID® Green autophagy detection reagent 2 is incorporated into cells, the accumulation of this fluorescent probe is typically observed in spherical vacuoles in the perinuclear region of the cell, in foci distributed throughout the cytoplasm, or in both locations, depending upon the cell type under investigation. The un-induced cells show very low background staining comparing to autophagic samples prepared as described in the user manual.
Quantity:For -0200 size:
200 flow cytometry assays, 250 microscopy assays or 3 x 96-well microplate assays.

For -0050 size:
50 flow cytometry assays, 60 microscopy assays or 1 x 96-well microplate assays.
Use/Stability:With proper storage, the kit components are stable for one year from date of receipt.
Handling:Protect from light. Avoid freeze/thaw cycles.
Shipping:Blue Ice
Short Term Storage:-20°C
Long Term Storage:-80°C
Contents:CYTO-ID® Green Detection Reagent 2
Hoechst 33342 Nuclear Stain
Autophagy Inducer (Rapamycin)
Chloroquine Control
10X Assay Buffer
Scientific Background:Autophagy is a stress-induced protective mechanism. Less active under basal conditions, the mechanism is utilized by eukaryotic cells through lysosome-mediated bulk degradation of cellular contents when subjected to certain hostile conditions such as nutrient depletion and chemical or environmental stress. The role of increased autophagic activity in the pathology of cancer, neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease and diabetes has become widely recognized and commonly studied. Induction of autophagic flux can be visualized by enhanced accumulation of autophagic vesicles if lysosomal function is inhibited, preventing removal of these vesicles.  
Technical Info/Product Notes:The CYTO-ID® Autophagy Detection kit 2.0 is a member of the CELLESTIAL® product line, reagents and assay kits comprising fluorescent molecular probes that have been extensively benchmarked for live cell analysis applications.
Protocol:A detailed protocol for FC in primary BMDCs can be found on Flow Cytometric Analysis of Autophagic Activity with CYTO-ID Staining in Primary Cells by M. Stankov, et al.
Regulatory Status:RUO - Research Use Only

Product Literature References

Amorfrutin B Protects Mouse Brain Neurons from Hypoxia/Ischemia by Inhibiting Apoptosis and Autophagy Processes Through Gene Methylation- and miRNA-Dependent Regulation: K. Przepiórska, et al.; Mol. Neurobiol. 60, 576 (2023), Abstract;
Brain injury accelerates the onset of a reversible agerelated microglial phenotype associated with inflammatory neurodegeneration: R.M. Ritzel, et al.; Sci. Adv. 9, eadd1101 (2023), Abstract;
CNS serotonin content mediating food deprivation-enhanced learning is regulated by hemolymph tryptophan concentration and autophagic flux in the pond snail: Y. Totani, et al.; Nutr. Neurosci. 26, 217 (2023), Abstract;
Effects of Sirolimus treatment on patients with β-Thalassemia: Lymphocyte immunophenotype and biological activity of memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells: M. Zurlo, et al.; J. Cell. Mol. Med. 27, 353 (2023), Abstract;
Impaired Autophagy in Krabbe Disease: The Role of BCL2 and Beclin-1 Phosphorylation: N. Papini, et al.; Int. J. Mol. Sci. 23, 5984 (2023), Abstract;
Nanoparticles of folic acid-methyl-b-cyclodextrin (FA-MbCD)/adamantane-albumin exhibit enhanced antitumor activity compared with FA-MbCD alone: A. Sakai, et al.; FEBS Open Bio 13, 233 (2023), Abstract;
Novel hydroxamic acid derivative induces apoptosis and constrains autophagy in leukemic cells: M.A. Fischer, et al.; J. Adv. Res. (2023), Abstract;
Production and Characterization of K562 Cellular Clones Hyper-Expressing the Gene Encoding α-Globin: Preliminary Analysis of Biomarkers Associated with Autophagy: M. Zurlo, et al.; Genes 14, 556 (2023), Abstract;
Short peptide domains of the Wnt inhibitor sFRP4 target ovarian cancer stem cells by neutralizing the Wnt β-catenin pathway, disrupting the interaction between β-catenin and CD24 and suppressing autophagy: S.M. Sundaram, et al.; Life Sci. 16, 121384 (2023), Abstract;
Surface-Modified Inhaled Microparticle-Encapsulated Celastrol for Enhanced Efficacy in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: X. Wang, et al.; Int. J. Mol. Sci. 24, 5204 (2023), Abstract;
3,4,5-O-tricaffeoylquinic acid with anti-radiation activity suppresses LPS-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation via autophagy in THP-1 macrophages: J. Liu, et al.; Mol. Immunol. 147, 187 (2022), Abstract;
6-(Methylsulfonyl) Hexyl Isothiocyanate: A Chemopreventive Agent Inducing Autophagy in Leukemia Cell Lines: V. Cocchi, et al.; Biomolecules 12, 1485 (2022), Abstract;
A Combination therapy using an mTOR inhibitor and Honokiol effectively induces autophagy through the modulation of AXL and Rubicon in renal cancer cells and restricts renal tumor growth following organ transplantation: A. Sabarwal, et al.; Carcinogenesis 43, 360 (2022), Abstract;
A peptide interfering with the dimerization of oncogenic KITENIN protein and its stability suppresses colorectal tumour progression: S.J. Kim et al.; Clin. Transl. Med. 12, e871 (2022), Abstract;
Activated amino acid response pathway generates apatinib resistance by reprograming glutamine metabolism in non-small-cell lung cancer: X. Zhou, et al.; Cell Death Dis. 13, 636 (2022), Abstract;
Air Plasma-Activated Medium Evokes a Death-Associated Perinuclear Mitochondrial Clustering: M. Suzuki-Karasaki, et al.; Int. J. Mol. Sci. 23, 1124 (2022), Abstract;
Anti-neoplastic sulfonamides alter the metabolic homeostasis and disrupt the suppressor activity of regulatory T cells: R. Gedaly, et al.; Sci. Rep. 12, 19112 (2022), Abstract;
Asiatic acid from Cyclocarya paliurus regulates the autophagy-lysosome system via directly inhibiting TGF-β type I receptor and ameliorates diabetic nephropathy fibrosis: X.X. Zhang, et al.; Food Funct. 13, 5536 (2022), Abstract;
Autophagy induced by taurolidine protects against polymicrobial sepsis by promoting both host resistance and disease tolerance: J. Huang, et al.; PNAS 119, e2121244119 (2022), Abstract;
Autophagy Promotes Hepatic Cystogenesis in Polycystic Liver Disease via Depletion of Cholangiocyte Ciliogenic Proteins: A.I. Masyuk, et al.; Hepatology 75, 1110 (2022), Abstract;
BCL2 inhibitor ABT-199 and BCL2L1 inhibitor WEHI-539 coordinately promote NOXA-mediated degradation of MCL1 in human leukemia cells: J.T. Chiou, et al.; Chem. Biol. Interact. 361, 109978 (2022), Abstract;
Bee Venom Triggers Autophagy-Induced Apoptosis in Human Lung Cancer Cells via the mTOR Signaling Pathway: J.E. Yu, et al.; J. Oncol. 2022, 8916464 (2022), Abstract;
Camboginol and Morelloflavone from Garcinia dulcis (Roxb.) Kurz Flower Extract Promote Autophagic Cell Death against Human Glioblastoma Cells through Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress: T. Siangcham, et al.; Prev. Nutr. Food Sci. 27, 376 (2022), Abstract;
Cellular Effects of Cyclodextrins: Studies on HeLa Cells: Á. Rusznyák, et al.; Molecules 27, 1589 (2022), Abstract;
Combination treatment with cyclosporin A and arsenic trioxide induce synergistic cell death via non-apoptotic pathway in uterine cervical cancer cells: P.J. Wu, et al.; Chem. Biol. Interact. 368, 110177 (2022), Abstract;
Combined Levo-tetrahydropalmatine and diphenyleneiodonium chloride enhances antitumor activity in hepatocellular carcinoma: X. Yin, et al.; Pharmacol. Res. 179, 106219 (2022), Abstract;
Emodin coupled with high LET neutron beam - a novel approach to treat on glioblastoma: J.Y. Kim, et al.; J. Radiat. Res. 63, 817 (2022), Abstract;
Gallium(III) Complex with Cloxyquin Ligands Induces Ferroptosis in Cancer Cells and Is a Potent Agent against Both Differentiated and Tumorigenic Cancer Stem Rhabdomyosarcoma Cells: M. Hreusova, et al.; Bioinorg. Chem. Appl. 2022, 3095749 (2022), Abstract;
HIF-1α/FOXO1 axis regulated autophagy is protective for β cell survival under hypoxia in human islets: R. Liang, et al.; Biochim. Biophys. Acta Mol. Basis Dis. 1868, 166356 (2022), Abstract;
Identification of distinct slow mode of reversible adaptation of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma to the prolonged acidic pH microenvironment: T.C. Wu, et al.; J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 41, 137 (2022), Abstract;
Inhibition of B-cell lymphoma 2 family proteins alters optical redox ratio, mitochondrial polarization, and cell energetics independent of cell state: A.A. Gillette, et al.; J. Biomed. Opt. 27, 056505 (2022), Abstract;
Integrative analysis of the miRNA-mRNA regulation network in hemocytes of Penaeus vannamei following Vibrio alginolyticus infection: F. Wang, et al.; Dev. Comp. Immunol. 131, 104390 (2022), Abstract;
Interaction of curcumin with glioblastoma cells via high and low linear energy transfer radiation therapy inducing radiosensitization effects: J.Y. Kim, et al.; J. Radiat. Res. 63, 342 (2022), Abstract;
Ipecac root extracts and isolated circular peptides differentially suppress inflammatory immune response characterised by proliferation, activation and degranulation capacity of human lymphocytes in vitro: C.M. Falanga, et al.; Biomed. Pharmacother. 152, 113120 (2022), Abstract;
Magnesium Homeostasis in Myogenic Differentiation - A Focus on the Regulation of TRPM7, MagT1 and SLC41A1 Transporters: M. Zocchi, et al.; Int. J. Mol. Sci. 23, 1658 (2022), Abstract;
miR-23b-3p Modulating Cytoprotective Autophagy and Glutamine Addiction in Sorafenib Resistant HepG2, a Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line: R. Kaur, et al.; Genes 13, 1375 (2022), Abstract;
MiR-302a Regenerates Human Corneal Endothelial Cells against IFN-γ-Induced Cell Death: S.H. Park, et al.; Cells 12, 36 (2022), Abstract;
Nanoparticle formulation of the fusion protein virus like particles of respiratory syncytial virus stimulates enhanced in vitro antigen presentation and autophagy: I. Menon, et al.; Int. J. Pharm. 623, 121919 (2022), Abstract;
NEDD4L binds the proteasome and promotes autophagy and bortezomib sensitivity in multiple myeloma: X. Huang, et al.; Cell Death Dis. 13, 197 (2022), Abstract;
Nigrosporins B, a Potential Anti-Cervical Cancer Agent, Induces Apoptosis and Protective Autophagy in Human Cervical Cancer Ca Ski Cells Mediated by PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathway: J. Zhang, et al.; Molecules 27, 2431 (2022), Abstract;
Novel microparticulate Zika vaccine induces a significant immune response in a preclinical murine model after intramuscular administration: A. Kale, et al.; Int. J. Pharm. 624, 121975 (2022), Abstract;
Oleic acid from cancer-associated fibroblast promotes cancer cell stemness by stearoyl-CoA desaturase under glucose-deficient condition: S.H. Hwang, et al.; Cancer Cell Int. 22, 404 (2022), Abstract;
Phloroglucinol Attenuates DNA Damage and Apoptosis Induced by Oxidative Stress in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium ARPE-19 Cells by Blocking the Production of Mitochondrial ROS: C. Park, et al.; Antioxidants 11, 2353 (2022), Abstract;
Protective autophagy decreases lorlatinib cytotoxicity through Foxo3a-dependent inhibition of apoptosis in NSCLC: C. Lu, et al.; Cell Death Discov. 8, 221 (2022), Abstract;
Regulatory Effects of Astragaloside IV on Hyperglycemia-Induced Mitophagy in Schwann Cells: X. Wei, et al.; Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2022, 7864308 (2022), Abstract;
Sexual identity of enterocytes regulates autophagy to determine intestinal health, lifespan and responses to rapamycin: J.C. Regan, et al.; Nat. Aging 2, 1145 (2022), Abstract;
Siah-1-interacting protein regulates mutated huntingtin protein aggregation in Huntington’s disease models: E. Latoszek, et al.; Cell Biosci. 12, 34 (2022), Abstract;
Snake venom induces an autophagic cell death via activation of the JNK pathway in colorectal cancer cells: J.E. Yu, et al.; J. Cancer 13, 3333 (2022), Abstract;
Spautin-1 inhibits mitochondrial complex I and leads to suppression of the unfolded protein response and cell survival during glucose starvation: K. Kunimasa, et al.; Sci. Rep. 12, 11533 (2022), Abstract;
Stevia and Stevioside Attenuate Liver Steatosis through PPARα-Mediated Lipophagy in db/db Mice Hepatocytes: M. Park, et al.; Antioxidants 11, 2496 (2022), Abstract;
The preventive effect of loganin on oxidative stress-induced cellular damage in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells: C. Park, et al.; Biosci. Trends 16, 291 (2022), Abstract;
ABCE1 Regulates RNase L-Induced Autophagy during Viral Infections: B. Ramnan, et al.; Viruses 13, 315 (2021 ), Abstract;
Advanced Maternal Age Deteriorates the Developmental Competence of Vitrified Oocytes in Mice: J. H. Lee, et al.; Cells 10, 1563 (2021), Abstract;
Aggregated Tau-PHF6 (VQIVYK) Potentiates NLRP3 Inflammasome Expression and Autophagy in Human Microglial Cells: C. Panda, et al.; Cells 10, 1652 (2021), Abstract;
Alpha-1 antitrypsin counteracts heme-induced endothelial cell inflammatory activation, autophagy dysfunction and death: K. Madyaningrana, et al.; Redox Biol. 46, 10260 (2021), Abstract;
Alpha1-antitrypsin counteracts heme-induced endothelial cell inflammatory activation, autophagy dysfunction and death: K. Madyaningrana, et al.; Redox Biol. 46, 102060 (2021), Abstract;
AMPK-Mediated Metabolic Switching Is High Effective for Phytochemical Levo-Tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) to Reduce Hepatocellular Carcinoma Tumor Growth: X. Yin, et al.; Metabolites 11, 811 (2021), Abstract;
Anti-Androgen Therapy Radiosensitizes Androgen Receptor Positive Cancers to F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose: I. Singaravelu, et al.; J. Nucl. Med. 121, 262958 (2021), Abstract;
Atractylodin inhibited the migration and induced autophagy in cholangiocarcinoma cells via PI3K/AKT/mTOR and p38MAPK signalling pathways: B. Acharya, et al.; J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 36, 1093 (2021), Abstract;
Autophagy Inhibition by Targeting PIKfyve Potentiates Response to Immune Checkpoint Blockade in Prostate Cancer: Y. Qiao, et al.; Nat. Cancer 2, 978 (2021), Application(s): HTS on Tecan plate reader, Abstract;
Autophagy-Mediated Activation of Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells Driven by Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived IL-15: G. Ye, et al.; Stem Cell Reports 16, 926 (2021), Abstract;
Carnosine suppresses human colorectal cancer cell proliferation by inducing necroptosis and autophagy and reducing angiogenesis: S.L. Hsieh, et al.; Oncol. Lett. 23, 44 (2021), Abstract;
Cellular Toxicity Mechanisms and the Role of Autophagy in Pt(IV) Prodrug-Loaded Ultrasmall Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Used for Enhanced Drug Delivery: L.G. Romero, et al.; Pharmaceutics 13, 1730 (2021), Abstract;
Cynaroside protects the blue light-induced retinal degeneration through alleviating apoptosis and inducing autophagy in vitro and in vivo: J. H Feng, et al.; Phytomedicine 88, 153604 (2021), Abstract;
Features of the Population of Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages Isolated after Stimulation with Concanavalin A and Thioglycolate: E.S. Zubkova, et al.; Bull. Exp. Biol. Med. 171, 532 (2021), Abstract;
Gαq activation modulates autophagy by promoting mTORC1 signaling: S. Cabezudo, et al.; Nat. Commun. 12, 4540 (2021), Abstract;
Hematopoiesis under telomere attrition at the single-cell resolution: N. Thongon, et al.; Nat. Commun. 12, 6850 (2021), Abstract;
Inhibiting autophagy targets human leukemic stem cells and hypoxic AML blasts by disrupting mitochondrial homeostasis: K.M. Dykstra, et al.; Blood Adv. 5, 2087 (2021), Abstract;
Interleukin-27 promotes autophagy in human serum-induced primary macrophages via an mTOR- and LC3-independent pathway: S. Laverdure, et al.; Sci. Rep. 11, 14898 (2021), Abstract;
Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy Arising From the Synergy Between ND1 3635G>A Mutation and Mitochondrial YARS2 Mutations: X. Jin, et al.; Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 62, 22 (2021), Abstract;
miR-151 Affects Low-Temperature Tolerance of Penaeus vannamei by Modulating Autophagy Under Low-Temperature Stress: A. Liang, et al.; Front. Cell Dev. Biol. 9, 595108 (2021), Application(s): Flow Cytometry on shrimps hemocytes, Abstract; Full Text
PLAC8 promotes adriamycin resistance via blocking autophagy in breast cancer: Y. Chen, et al.; J. Cell. Mol. Med. 25, 6948 (2021), Abstract;
Pva-miR-252 participates in ammonia nitrogen-induced oxidative stress by modulating autophagy in Penaeus vannamei: F. Wang, et al.; Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 225, 112774 (2021), Abstract;
Resuming Sensitivity of Tamoxifen-Resistant Breast Cancer Cells to Tamoxifen by Tetrandrine: Y. Wang, et al.; Integr. Cancer Ther. 20, 1534735421996822 (2021), Abstract;
REV1 Inhibition Enhances Radioresistance and Autophagy: K.E. Ikeh, et al.; Cancers 13, 5290 (2021), Abstract;
Self-assembly of an anion receptor with metal-dependent kinase inhibition and potent in vitro anti-cancer properties: S. J. Allison, et al.; Nat. Commun. 12, 33898 (2021), Abstract;
Serum supplementation during bovine embryo culture affects their development and proliferation through macroautophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress regulation: E.J. Soto-Moreno, et al.; PLoS One 16, e0260123 (2021), Abstract;
Substrate Reduction Therapy Reverses Mitochondrial, mTOR, and Autophagy Alterations in a Cell Model of Gaucher Disease: Y. Peng, et al.; Cells 10, 2286 (2021), Abstract;
Suppression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR/c-Myc/mtp53 Positive Feedback Loop Induces Cell Cycle Arrest by Dual PI3K/mTOR Inhibitor PQR309 in Endometrial Cancer Cell Lines: I.L. Hsin, et al.; Cells 10, 2916 (2021), Abstract;
Tumor-treating fields as a proton beam-sensitizer for glioblastoma therapy: W.S. Lee, et al.; Am. J. Cancer Res. 11, 4582 (2021), Abstract;
Urban Aerosol Particulate Matter Promotes Necrosis and Autophagy via Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Cellular Disorders that are Accompanied by Cell Cycle Arrest in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells: H. Lee, et al.; Antioxidants 10, 149 (2021), Abstract;
WLS/wntless is essential in controlling dendritic cell homeostasis via a WNT signaling-independent mechanism: L.T. Wang, et al.; Autophagy 17, 4202 (2021), Application(s): Flow Cytometry on mouse dendritic cells, Abstract;
Baicalin Protects Human OA Chondrocytes Against IL-1β-Induced Apoptosis and ECM Degradation by Activating Autophagy via MiR-766-3p/AIFM1 Axis: Z. Li, et al.; Drug Des. Devel. Ther. 14, 2465 (2020), Abstract; Full Text
Conidiobolus coronatus induces oxidative stress and autophagy response in Galleria mellonella larvae: M. Kazek, et al.; PLoS One 15, e0228407 (2020), Abstract; Full Text
Defects in LC3B2 and ATG4A underlie HSV2 meningitis and reveal a critical role for autophagy in antiviral defense in humans: A.S. Hait, et al.; Sci. Immunol. 5, eabc2691 (2020), Application(s): Flow Cytometry, Abstract;
End Processing Factor APLF Promotes NHEJ Efficiency and Contributes to TMZ- and Ionizing Radiation-Resistance in Glioblastoma Cells: W. Dong, et al.; Onco Targets Ther. 13, 10593 (2020), Abstract; Full Text
Human enteroviral infection impairs autophagy in clonal INS(832/13) cells and human pancreatic islet cells: A. Wernersson, et al.; Diabetologia 63, 2372 (2020), Abstract; Full Text
Selective degradation of IKKα by autophagy is essential for arsenite-induced cancer cell apoptosis: Q. Tan, et al.; Cell Death Dis. 11, 222 (2020), Abstract; Full Text
SR9009 induces a REV-ERB dependent anti-small-cell lung cancer effect through inhibition of autophagy: W. Shen, et al.; Theranostics 10, 4466 (2020), Abstract; Full Text
The excretory/secretory Products of Fifth-Stage Larval Angiostrongylus Cantonensis Induces Autophagy via the Sonic Hedgehog Pathway in Mouse Brain Astrocytes: K. Chen, et al.; PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 14, e0008290 (2020), Abstract; Full Text
Airway epithelial regeneration requires autophagy and glucose metabolism: K. Li, et al.; Cell Death Dis. 10, 875 (2019), Abstract; Full Text
Aqueous extract of clove inhibits tumor growth by inducing autophagythrough AMPK/ULK pathway: C. Li, et al.; Phytother. Res. 33, 1794 (2019), Application(s): Flow Cytometry analysis in human pancreatic and colon cancer cells (ASPC-1 and HT-29), Abstract; Full Text
Autophagy differentially regulates macrophage lipid handling depending on the lipid substrate (oleic acid vs. acetylated-LDL) and inflammatory activation state: S. Hadadi-Bechor, et al.; Biochim. Biophys. Acta Mol. Cell Biol. Lipids 11, 158527 (2019), Abstract;
Autophagy induction and PDGFR-β knockdown by siRNA-encapsulated nanoparticles reduce chlamydia trachomatis infection: S. Yang, et al.; Sci. Rep. 9, 1306 (2019), Application(s): Human Vaginal Epithelial Cells (CK2/E6E7)- Autophagic Flux, Abstract; Full Text
Decreased Autophagy Impairs Decidualization of Human Endometrial Stromal Cells: A Role for ATG Proteins in Endometrial Physiology: A.C. Mestre Citrinovitz, et al.; Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20, 3066 (2019), Application(s): Flow Cytometry analysis in human endometrial stromal cells (t-HESC), Abstract; Full Text
Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Model of Trastuzumab-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction in Patients With Breast Cancer: T. Kitani, et al.; Circulation 139, 2451 (2019), Abstract;
Inhibited autophagy may contribute to heme toxicity in cardiomyoblast cells: A. Gyongyosi, et al.; Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 511, 732 (2019), Application(s): Autophagic process in H9c2 cardiomyoblast cell, Abstract;
LKB1/p53/TIGAR/autophagy-dependent VEGF expression contributes to PM2.5-induced pulmonary inflammatory responses: H. Xu, et al.; Sci. Rep. 9, 16600 (2019), Abstract; Full Text
miR-20a inhibits hypoxia-induced autophagy by targeting ATG5/FIP200 in colorectal cancer: J. Che, et al.; Mol. Carcinog. 58, 1234 (2019), Application(s): Flow Cytometry and Microscopy in colon cancer cells , Abstract;
Zebrafish modeling of intestinal injury, bacterial exposures, and medications defines epithelial in vivo responses relevant to human inflammatory bowel disease: L.S. Chuang, et al.; Dis. Model. Mech. 12, dmm037432 (2019), Application(s): Microscopy in zebrafish larvae gut, Abstract; Full Text
Zn-doped CuO nanocomposites inhibit tumor growth by NF-κB pathwaycross-linked autophagy and apoptosis: H. Xu, et al.; Nanomedicine (Lond.) 14, 131 (2019), Application(s): Flow Cytometry and Microscopy in cancer cells (Panc28 and HepG2), Abstract;
Genistein promotes ionizing radiation-induced cell death by reducing cytoplasmic Bcl-xL levels in non-small cell lung cancer: Z. Zhang, et al.; Sci. Rep. 8, 328 (2018), Abstract; Full Text
Knockout of ATG5 leads to malignant cell transformation and resistance to Src family kinase inhibitor PP2: S.H. Hwang, et al.; J. Cell. Physiol. 233, 506 (2018), Abstract;
Maslinic acid induces autophagy by down-regulating HSPA8 in pancreatic cancer cells: Y. Tian, et al.; Phytother. Res. 32, 1320 (2018), Abstract;
Metabolite of ellagitannins, urolithin A induces autophagy and inhibits metastasis in human sw620 colorectal cancer cells: W. Zhao, et al.; Mol. Carcinog. 57, 193 (2018), Abstract;
Silver nanoparticles induce lysosomal-autophagic defects and decreased expression of transcription factor EB in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells: T. Miyayama, et al.; Toxicol. In Vitro. 46, 148 (2018), Application(s): Confocal microscopy with A549 cells, Abstract;
The Oxysterol 7-Ketocholesterol Reduces Zika Virus Titers in Vero Cells and Human Neurons: K.A. Willard, et al.; Viruses 11, 20 (2018), Application(s): Flow Cytometry in Vero cells, Abstract; Full Text
Alisertib promotes apoptosis and autophagy in melanoma through p38 MAPK-mediated aurora a signaling: Y. Shang, et al.; Oncotarget. 8, 107076 (2017), Abstract; Full Text
Humic acid inhibits HBV-induced autophagosome formation and induces apoptosis in HBV-transfected Hep G2 cells: K. Pant, et al.; Sci. Rep. 6, 34496 (2016), Application(s): Autophagosome formation assay, HepG2 cells, Abstract; Full Text
Inhibition of autophagy with chloroquine potentiates carfilzomib-induced apoptosis in myeloma cells in vitro and in vivo: V. Jarauta, et al.; Cancer Lett. 382, 1 (2016), Abstract;

General Literature References

A live-cell fluorescence microplate assay suitable for monitoring vacuolation arising from drug or toxic agent treatment: J. Coleman, et al.; J. Biomol. Screen. 15, 398 (2010), Abstract;
Methods in mammalian autophagy research: N. Mizushima, et al.; Cell 140, 313 (2010), Abstract;
Assays to Assess Autophagy Induction and Fusion of Autophagic Vacuoles with a Degradative Compartment, Using Monodansylcadaverine (MDC) and DQ-BSA: C.L. Vazquez & M.I. Colombo; Methods Enzymol. 452, 85 (2009), Abstract;
Desmethylclomipramine induces the accumulation of autophagy markers by blocking autophagic flux: M. Rossi, et al.; J. Cell Sci. 122, 3330 (2009), Abstract;
Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy in higher eukaryotes: D.J. Klionsky, et al.; Autophagy 4, 151 (2008), Abstract;

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MITO-ID® Red detection kit (GFP-CERTIFIED®) 

Photostable,  non-toxic and selective mitochondrial dye that stains regardless of membrane  potential
Fluorescence microscopy, Fluorescent detection | Print as PDF
ENZ-51007-0100 100 tests 106.00 USD
ENZ-51007-500 500 tests 311.00 USD
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Red hydrogen peroxide assay kit  

Fluorescence microscopy, HTS | Print as PDF
ENZ-51004 1 Kit 379.00 USD
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NUCLEAR-ID® Green chromatin condensation detection kit  

A highly permeable green-emitting  dye for enhanced detection of apoptosis-induced chromatin condensation
Flow Cytometry, Fluorescence microscopy, Fluorescent detection | Print as PDF
ENZ-51021-K200 1 Kit 372.00 USD
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Cell permeable DNA stain that can be used for a wide range of applications
≥95% (HPLC), Flow Cytometry, Fluorescent detection | Print as PDF
ENZ-CHM103-0200 200 µl 263.00 USD
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NUCLEAR-ID® Blue/Red cell viability reagent (GFP-CERTIFIED®) 

Distinguishes between live vs dead cells in a single reagent.
≥93% (HPLC), Flow Cytometry, Fluorescence microscopy, Fluorescent detection | Print as PDF
ENZ-53005-C100 100 µl 313.00 USD
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p62 ELISA kit 

Highly validated, quantitative p62 ELISA kit available for autophagy research.
ELISA, Colorimetric detection | Print as PDF
ADI-900-212-0001 96 wells 697.00 USD
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