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Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate

PKC activator
BML-PE160-0001 1 mg 69.00 USD
BML-PE160-0005 5 mg 169.00 USD
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Replaces Prod. #: ALX-445-004

PKC activator (10-100 ng/ml). Most commonly used phorbol ester. Causes an extremely wide range of effects in cells and tissues. Very potent mouse skin tumor promoter. Inhibits apoptosis induced by Fas, but induces apoptosis in HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells.

Product Details

Alternative Name:PMA, TPA
Purity:≥99% (HPLC, TLC)
Appearance:Colorless amorphous film or foam.
Solubility:Soluble in DMSO (25mg/ml), 100% ethanol (25mg/ml), acetone, ether or dimethyl formamide; almost insoluble in aqueous buffers.
Shipping:Ambient Temperature
Long Term Storage:-20°C
Use/Stability:Dissolve in an organic solvent prior to dilution into aqueous buffers. Add calculated volume of organic solvent to vial to prepare concentrated stock solution. Intermediate dilutions into the same organic solvent are recommended prior to final dilution into aqueous buffer. Store, as supplied, at -20°C for up to 1 year. Store solutions at -20°C for up to 3 months.
Handling:Protect from light.
Regulatory Status:RUO - Research Use Only
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Product Literature References

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Beneficial effects of celastrol on immune balance by modulating gut microbiota in experimental ulcerative colitis: M. Li, et al.; Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics 20, 288 (2022), Abstract;
Cytosporone B (Csn-B), an NR4A1 agonist, attenuates acute cardiac allograft rejection by inducing differential apoptosis of CD4+T cells: X. Ding, et al.; Int. Immunopharmacol. 104, 108521 (2022), Abstract;
Selection of a novel strain of Christensenella minuta as a future biotherapy for Crohn’s disease: K. Relizani, et al.; Sci. Rep. 12, 6017 (2022), Abstract;
The ZFP36 family of RNA binding proteins regulates homeostatic and autoreactive T cell responses: M.E. Cook, et al.; Sci. Immunol. 7, eabo0981 (2022), Abstract;
Discovery of a small-molecule protein kinase Cδ-selective activator with promising application in colon cancer therapy: C. Bessa, et al.; Cell Death Dis. 9, 23 (2018), Abstract; Full Text
Mesenchymal stem cells induced CD4+ T cell apoptosis in treatment of lupus mice: S. Huang, et al.; Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 507, 30 (2018), Abstract;
Liver receptor homolog-1 (NR5a2) regulates CD95/Fas ligand transcription and associated T-cell effector functions: J. Schwaderer, et al.; Cell Death Dis. 8, e2745 (2017), Abstract; Full Text
Novel augmentation by bufalin of protein kinase C-induced cyclooxygenase-2 and IL-8 production in human breast cancer cells: H.T. Chen, et al.; Innate Immun. 23, 54 (2017), Abstract; Full Text
Activity of red wine polyphenols on endothelial nosynthase (eNOS): N. Djibril, et al.; African J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 10, 766 (2016), Application(s): Positive control reference in luciferase reporter gene assay, Full Text
Effects of the Indirubin Derivative E804 on Glioblastoma Associated Immunomodulation: H. Houke; (2016), (master's thesis), Application(s): Cell culture, Full Text
The IL-33 receptor (ST2) regulates early IL-13 production in fungus-induced allergic airway inflammation: D. Piehler, et al.; Mucosal. Immunol. 9, 937 (2016), Application(s): Cell culture, Abstract;
Chrysin suppresses human CD14+ monocyte-derived dendritic cells and ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: K. Zhang, et al.; J. Neuroimmunol. 288, 13 (2015), Application(s): Intracellular cytokine staining, Abstract;
Effects of replacing soybean meal with rubber seed meal on growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus): J. Deng, et al.; Fish Shellfish Immunol. 44, 436 (2015), Application(s): Cell Culture , Abstract;
Procyanidin Trimer C1 Derived from Theobroma cacao Reactivates Latent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Provirus: T. Hori, et al.; Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 459, 288 (2015), Application(s): Cell Culture, Abstract;
Puerarin attenuates smoke inhalation injury by regulation of Th1/Th2 expression and inhibition of Th17 cells in rats: F. Zhang, et al.; Int. Immunopharmacol. 28, 546 (2015), Application(s): Injected into mice, Abstract;
The Profile of T Helper Subsets in Bone Marrow Microenvironment Is Distinct for Different Stages of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients and Chemotherapy Partly Ameliorates These Variations: T. Tian, et al.; PLoS One 10, e0131761 (2015), Application(s): Cell Culture, Abstract; Full Text
β-glucan microparticles targeted to epithelial APN as oral antigen delivery system: K. Baert, et al.; J. Control Release 220, 149 (2015), Application(s): Cell Culture, Abstract;
Gamma-secretase gene mutations in familial acne inversa: B. Wang, et al.; Science 330, 1065 (2010), Abstract;
Phorbol esters: structure, biological activity, and toxicity in animals: G. Goel, et al.; Int. J. Toxicol. 26, 279 (2007), Abstract;
Inhibitory effects of [6]-gingerol on PMA-induced COX-2 expression and activation of NF-kappaB and p38 MAPK in mouse skin: S.O. Kim, et al.; Biofactors 21, 27 (2004), Abstract;
Characterization of phorbol esters activity on individual mammalian protein kinase C isoforms, using the yeast phenotypic assay: L. Saraiva et al.; Eur. J. Pharmacol. 491, 101 (2003), Abstract;
Phorbol esters and neurotransmitter release: more than just protein kinase C?: E.M. Silinsky & T.J. Searl; Br. J. Pharmacol. 138, 1191 (2003), Abstract;
Gene expression of TPA induced differentiation in HL-60 cells by DNA microarray analysis: X. Zheng et al.; Nucleic Acids Res. 30, 4489 (2002), Abstract;
Phorbol esters and synthetic diacylglycerols inhibit gamma-aminobutyric acid uptake in human spermatozoa: an effect mediated by protein kinase C?: A. Aanesen et al.; Mol. Hum. Reprod. 4, 339 (1998), Abstract;
Evidence for different mechanisms of growth inhibition of T-cell lymphoma by phorbol esters and concanavalin A: S. Desrivieres et al.; J. Biol. Chem. 272, 2470 (1997), Abstract;
Effect of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate on Ca2+-ATPase activity in rat liver nuclei: K. Oishi & M. Yamaguchi; J. Cell. Biochem. 55, 168 (1994), Abstract;
Phorbol ester induces apoptosis in HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells but not in HL-60 PET mutant: D.E. Macfarlane & P.S. O'Donnell; Leukemia 7, 1846 (1993), Abstract;
Differential irreversible insertion of protein kinase C into phospholipid vesicles by phorbol esters and related activators: M.G. Kazanietz et al.; J. Biol. Chem. 267, 20878 (1992), Abstract;
Phorbol esters induce nitric oxide synthase activity in rat hepatocytes. Antagonism with the induction elicited by lipopolysaccharide: S. Hortelano et al.; J. Biol. Chem. 267, 24937 (1992), Abstract;
Activation of the PKC-isotypes alpha, beta 1, gamma, delta and epsilon by phorbol esters of different biological activities: V.J. Ryves et al.; FEBS Lett. 288, 5 (1991), Abstract;
Direct activation of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase by tumor-promoting phorbol esters: M. Castagna et al.; J. Biol. Chem. 257, 7847 (1982), Abstract;
In vitro studies on the mode of action of the phorbol esters, potent tumor promoters: part 1: P.M. Blumberg; CRC Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 8, 153 (1980), Abstract;
Autoxidation of phorbol esters under normal storage conditions: R. Schmidt & E. Hecker; Cancer Res. 35, 1375 (1975), Abstract;