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Toxin A (Clostridium difficile)

Cytotoxic and enterotoxic
ALX-630-100-C100 100 µg 1,004.00 USD
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Has potent cytotoxic and enterotoxic properties. Translocates to the cytosol of target cells and glucosylates small GTP-binding proteins such as Rho, Rac, and Cdc42. Induces actin condensation, cell death and opening of the tight junctions. Triggers release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from intestinal epithelial cells probably via activation of MAP kinases.

Product Details

Source:Isolated from Clostridium difficile.
UniProt ID:P16154
Formulation:Lyophilized from 50mM TRIS, pH 7.5, containing 50mM sodium chloride and 0.1% trehalose.
Purity Detail:When examined on 3-8% SDS-PAGE gels, this protein migrates as a single major band with an apparent molecular weight of 300,000 Dan run. Densitometric analysis estimates the purity of the product as >80%.
Activity:Each lot is tested to confirm binding activity to fresh rabbit red blood cells using a hemagglutination assay. The lowest concentration producing a positive reaction was ~50µg/ml.
Reconstitution:Reconstitute with sterile distilled water.
Shipping:Ambient Temperature
Long Term Storage:+4°C
Use/Stability:Stable for 2 months at +4°C after reconstitution in sterile water at a concentration of 0.2 mg/ml.
Handling:Do not vortex. Do not freeze.
Technical Info/Product Notes:Protein concentration is determined by the Bradford method using BSA as a standard.
Regulatory Status:RUO - Research Use Only

Product Literature References

Rho-glucosylating Clostridium difficile toxins A and B: new insights into structure and function: T. Jank, et al.; Glycobiology 17, 15R (2007), (Review), Abstract;
Clostridium difficile toxins: mechanism of action and role in disease: D. E. Voth & J. D. Ballard; Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 18, 247 (2005), (Review), Abstract;
Large clostridial cytotoxins: cellular biology of Rho/Ras-glucosylating toxins: J. Schirmer & K. Aktories; Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1673, 66 (2004), Abstract;
Effects of Clostridium difficile toxins on epithelial cell barrier: C. Pothoulakis; Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 915, 347 (2000), Abstract;
Clostridium difficile toxin A and its effects on cells: C. Fiorentini & M. Thelestam; Toxicon 297, 543 (1991), Abstract;
Purification and characterization of Clostridium difficile toxin: R. D. Rolfe & S. M. Finegold; Infect. Immun. 257, 191 (1979), Abstract;
A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding: M.M. Bradford; Anal. Biochem. 72, 248 (1976), Abstract;

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Toxin A
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