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LPS from Salmonella abortus equi S-form (TLRGRADE®) (Ready-to-Use)

TLR4 activator
ALX-581-009-L001 1 ml 199.00 USD
ALX-581-009-L002 2 ml 318.00 USD
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Product Details

Alternative Name:Lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella abortus equi S-form
Source:Smooth (S)-form LPS, isolated and purified from Salmonella abortus equi by modification of the phenol water extraction and PCP method, converted to the uniform salt form and dissolved in pyrogen-free double distilled water.
Formulation:Liquid. Sterile, ready-to-use solution in pyrogen-free double distilled water.
Purity:Absence of detectable protein or DNA contaminants with agonistic TLR activity.
Activity:Strong activator of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. Does not activate TLR2 or other TLRs as determined with splenocytes and macrophages from TLR4 deficient mice. No further re-extraction required.Smooth (S)-form LPS are commonly the preferred choice for whole animal studies, whereas Rough (R)-form LPS are primarily used in cellular in vitro activation studies.
Shipping:Ambient Temperature
Long Term Storage:+4°C
Use/Stability:Stable for at least 1 year after receipt when stored at +4°C.
Handling:Do not ingest. Wear gloves and mask when handling this product! Avoid contact through all modes of exposure. LPS compounds are highly pyrogenic. Avoid accidental injection; extreme care should be taken when handling in conjunction with hypodermic syringes Use must be restricted to qualified personnel. Keep sterile.
Technical Info/Product Notes:For the biotinylated LPS, please see Prod. No. ALX-581-150.
Regulatory Status:RUO - Research Use Only
Lipid A from E. coli, Serotype R515 (Re) (TLRGRADE) (Ready-to-Use) image
Figure: Activation of macrophages from TLR4 wild type compared to TLR4 deficient mice by LPS and Lipid A from Enzo. Lipid A or LPS concentrations, which induced maximal activation of TLR4 wild type mouse macrophages, were also applied to TLR4 deficient mouse macrophages. 10 units of IL-6 correspond to the detection limit of the IL-6 ELISA.
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Lipid A from E. coli, Serotype R515 (Re) (TLRGRADE) (Ready-to-Use) image

Product Literature References

Immunostimulatory activity of fluoxetine in macrophages via regulation of the PI3K and P38 signaling pathways: H.T. Önal, et al.; Immunol. Res. 71, 413 (2023), Abstract;
Voltage-Gated Proton Channel Hv1 Regulates Neuroinflammation and Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s Disease Models: M.L. Neal, et al.; Antioxidants 12, 582 (2023), Abstract;
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) inhibition attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive dysfunction and sickness-like behavior in mic: D. Ghosh, et al.; Immunol. Res. 70, 633 (2022), Abstract;
Non-canonical anti-cancer, anti-metastatic, anti-angiogenic and immunomodulatory PDT potentials of water soluble phthalocyanine derivatives with imidazole groups and their intracellular mechanism of action: F. Ayaz, et al.; Photodiagnosis Photodyn. Ther. 39, 103035 (2022), Abstract;
Physiological levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 induce a suppressive CD4+ T cell phenotype not reflected in the epigenetic landscape: C. Matos, et al.; Scand. J. Immunol. 95, e13146 (2022), Abstract;
Postmitotic differentiation of human monocytes requires cohesin-structured chromatin: J. Minderjahn, et al.; Nat. Commun. 13, 4301 (2022), Abstract;
Specific features of human monocytes activation by monophosphoryl lipid A: R. Chentouh, et al.; Sci. Rep. 8, 7096 (2018), Abstract; Full Text
Alternative microglial activation is associated with cessation of progressive dopamine neuron loss in mice systemically administered lipopolysaccharide: E.E. Beier, et al.; Neurobiol. Dis. 108, 115 (2017), Application(s): Mouse Injection, Abstract;
Lactic acid delays the inflammatory response of human monocytes: K. Peter, et al.; Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 457, 412 (2015), Application(s): Cell Culture, Abstract;
Mechanisms of Hypoxic Up-Regulation of Versican Gene Expression in Macrophages: F. Sotoodehnejadnematalahi, et al.; PLoS One 10, e0125799 (2015), Application(s): Cell Culture, Abstract; Full Text
TLR3-mediated CD8+ dendritic cell activation is coupled with establishment of a cell-intrinsic antiviral state: L. Szèles, et al.; J. Immunol. 195, 1025 (2015), Abstract;
Differential inflammatory response to inhaled lipopolysaccharide targeted either to the airways or the alveoli in man: W. Möller, et al.; PLoS One 7, e33505 (2012), Abstract; Full Text
Chemokine Expression by Small Sputum Macrophages in COPD: M. Frankenberger, et al.; Mol. Med. 17, 762 (2011), Abstract; Full Text
Evolution of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) recognition and signaling: fish TLR4 does not recognize LPS and negatively regulates NF-kappaB activation: M.P. Sepulcre, et al.; J. Immunol. 182, (2009), Abstract; Full Text
Lipopolysaccharide elicits expression of immune-related genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori: H. Tanaka, et al.; Insect Mol. Biol. 18, 71 (2009), Abstract;
Increased TNF expression in CD43++ murine blood monocytes: B. Burke, et al.; Immunol. Lett. 118, 142 (2008), Abstract;
Production of IL-12, IL-23 and IL-27p28 by bone marrow-derived conventional dendritic cells rather than macrophages after LPS/TLR4-dependent induction by Salmonella Enteritidis: S. Siegemund, et al.; Immunobiology 212, 739 (2008), Abstract;
R-form LPS, the master key to the activation ofTLR4/MD-2-positive cells: M. Huber, et al.; Eur. J. Immunol. 36, 701 (2006), Abstract;
CD14 is required for MyD88-independent LPS signaling: Z. Jiang, et al.; Nat. Immunol. 6, 565 (2005), Abstract;
IL-12 family members: differential kinetics of their TLR4-mediated induction by Salmonella Enteritidis and the impact of IL-10 in bone marrow-derived macrophages: N. Schuetze, et al.; Int. Immunol. 17, 649 (2005), Abstract;
A striking correlation between lethal activity and apoptotic DNA fragmentation of liver in response of D-galactosamine-sensitized mice to a non-lethal amount of lipopolysaccharide: B.R. Zhou, et al.; Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 24, 193 (2003), Abstract; Full Text
Toll-like receptor 4 expression levels determine the degree of LPS-susceptibility in mice: C. Kalis, et al.; Eur. J. Immunol. 33, 798 (2003), Abstract;
Oligosaccharides of Hyaluronan activate dendritic cells via toll-like receptor 4: C. Termeer, et al.; J. Exp. Med. 195, 99 (2002), Abstract; Full Text
Isolation and purification of R-form lipopolysaccharides: C. Galanos & O. Lüderitz; Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry 9, 11 (1993), Abstract;
Preparation and properties of a standardized lipopolysaccharide from salmonella abortus equi (Novo-Pyrexal)  : C. Galanos, et al.; Zentralbl. Bakteriol. [Orig. A] 243, 226 (1979), Abstract;
Electrodialysis of lipopolysaccharides and their conversion to uniform salt forms: C. Galanos & O. Lüderitz; Eur. J. Biochem. 54, 603 (1975), Abstract;
A new method for the extraction of R lipopolysaccharides: C. Galanos, et al.; Eur. J. Biochem. 9, 245 (1969), Abstract;

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LPS from Salmonella abortus equi S-form (TLRGRADE®) (Ready-to-Use) (Biotin) 

TLR4 activator
Smooth (S)-form LPS, isolated and purified from Salmonella abortus equi by modification of the phenol water extraction and PCP method. LPS-Biotin was prepared using the biotin reagent biotinamidocaproate N-hydroxysuccinimide ester. Briefly, LPS at 10mg/ml in distilled water was mixed with biotin reagent in sodium bicarbonate buffer. The reaction mixture was stirred, dialyzed extensively against distilled water in the dark, and sterile filtered., Absence of dectectable protein or DNA contaminants with agonistic TLR activity. | Print as PDF
ALX-581-150-R500 500 µl 474.00 USD
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