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Flagellin (high purity)

ALX-522-058-3010 3x10 µg SuperPack Inquire for pricing
ALX-522-058-C010 10 µg Inquire for pricing
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Product Details

Source:Isolated from Salmonella typhimurium strain 14028.
UniProt ID:P06179
Concentration:0.1mg/ml after reconstitution.
Formulation:Lyophilized. Contains PBS.
Purity:≥95% (SDS-PAGE)
Endotoxin Content:<0.05EU/µg purified protein (LAL test; Associates of Cape Cod).
Species reactivity:Human, Mouse
Specificity:Binds to human and mouse TLR5 (Toll-like receptor 5).
Biological Activity:Tests positive for activation of HEK-Blue™ hTLR5 reporter cell line (Invivogen).
Reconstitution:Reconstitute with 100µl sterile water.
Shipping:Blue Ice
Long Term Storage:-20°C
Use/Stability:Stable for at least 6 months after receipt when stored at -20°C.
Handling:Avoid freeze/thaw cycles. After reconstitution, prepare aliquots and store at -20°C.
Scientific Background:Motile bacteria produce flagella, filaments composed mainly of the structural subunit flagellin. Flagellins are highly conserved molecules among both gram negative and gram positive bacteria, especially in 170 N-terminal and 100 C-terminal amino acids. In mammalian cells, Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) senses various flagellins resulting in activation of innate and adaptive immunity. The phase 1 flagellin FliC from Salmonella typhimurium (serotype H 'I'), a protein of 494 amino acids, upregulates production of chemokines and antimicrobial compounds in human epithelial cells and monocytes and induces maturation of dendritic cells. Historical results have shown that flagellin tests positive for activation of HEK-Blue™ hTLR5 reporter cell line (Invivogen) at concentrations >1 pg/ml.
Regulatory Status:RUO - Research Use Only

Product Literature References

AIM2 and NLRC4-driven inflammasome activation in adult-onset Still’s disease and the preliminary therapeutic effect exploration of carboxyamidotriazole: M. Duan, et al.; Clin. Rheumatol 42, 1635 (2023), Abstract;
Identification of the target protein and molecular mechanism of honokiol in anti-inflammatory action: X. Cai, et al.; Phytomedicine 109, 154617 (2023), Abstract;
Ghrelin Represses Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin Gene Expression through Activation of Glucocorticoid Receptor and Protein Kinase C Delta in Inflamed Skin Keratinocytes: H. Jeong, et al.; Int. J. Mol. Sci. 23, 3977 (2022), Abstract;
Subversion of Lipopolysaccharide Signaling in Gingival Keratinocytes via MCPIP-1 Degradation as a Novel Pathogenic Strategy of Inflammophilic Pathobionts: A. Gasiorek, et al.; Mbio 12, 502 (2021), Abstract;
Myeloma Cells Are Activated in Bone Marrow Microenvironment by the CD180/MD-1 Complex, Which Senses Lipopolysaccharide: J. Kikuchi, et al.; Cancer Res. 78, 1766 (2018), Abstract;
Primary human polarized small intestinal epithelial barriers respond differently to a hazardous and an innocuous protein: A.D. Eaton, et al.; Food Chem. Toxicol. 106, 70 (2017), Abstract;
A recombinant Sp185/333 protein from the purple sea urchin has multitasking binding activities towards certain microbes and PAMPs: C.M. Lun, et al.; Immunobiology 221, 889 (2016), Application(s): Added to ELISA plate wells, Abstract;
An Experimental Platform Using Human Intestinal Epithelial Cell Lines to Differentiate between Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Proteins: B.P. Hurley, et al.; Food Chem. Toxicol. 92, 75 (2016), Application(s): Cell culture, Abstract;
SESN2/sestrin2 suppresses sepsis by inducing mitophagy and inhibiting NLRP3 activation in macrophages: M.J. Kim, et al.; Autophagy 12, 1272 (2016), Abstract;
Simvastatin Inhibits Toll-like Receptor 8 (TLR8) Signaling in Primary Human Monocytes and Spontaneous Tumor Necrosis Factor Production from Rheumatoid Synovial Membrane Cultures: L. Mullen, et al.; Mol. Med. 21, 726 (2015), Abstract; Full Text
A novel pharmacologic inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasome limits myocardial injury after ischemia-reperfusion in the mouse: C. Marchetti, et al.; J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 63, 316 (2014), Abstract; Full Text
Effects of cigarette smoke on Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) macrophages: H.J. Metcalfe, et al.; Clin. Exp. Immunol. 176, 461 (2014), Abstract; Full Text
Soluble CEACAM8 interacts with CEACAM1 inhibiting TLR2-triggered immune responses: B.B. Singer, et al.; PLoS One 9, e94106 (2014), Abstract; Full Text
TLR5 activation by flagellin induces doxorubicin resistance via interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in two multiple myeloma cells: H.Y. Cho, et al.; Cell. Immunol. 289, 27 (2014), Abstract;
Toll-like receptor-mediated airway IL-17C enhances epithelial host defense in an autocrine/paracrine manner: H. Kusagaya, et al.; Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 50, 30 (2014), Abstract;
Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 is decreased in intestinal epithelium of ulcerative colitis patients and thereby causes increased apoptosis and impaired wound healing: Q.J. Zhao, et al.; Mol. Med. 18, 497 (2012), Abstract; Full Text
Molecular cloning, characterization and expression of goose Toll-like receptor 5: Q. Fang, et al.; Mol. Immunol. 52, 117 (2012), Abstract;
All-trans retinoic acid induces TLR-5 expression and cell differentiation and promotes flagellin-mediated cell functions in human THP-1 cells: H.Y. Cho, et al.; Immunol Lett. 136, 97 (2011), Abstract;
CD14 and TRIF govern distinct responsiveness and responses in mouse microglial TLR4 challenges by structural variants of LPS: T. Regen, et al.; Brain Behav. Immun. 25, 957 (2011), Abstract;
Human Langerhans cells selectively activated via Toll-like receptor 2 agonists acquire migratory and CD4+T cell stimulatory capacity: M. Peiser, et al.; J. Leukoc. Biol. 83, 1118 (2008), Abstract;
Pathophysiological role of Toll-like receptor 5 engagement by bacterial flagellin in colonic inflammation: S.H. Rhee, et al.; PNAS 102, 13610 (2005), Abstract;
Flagellin stimulation of intestinal epithelial cells triggers CCL20-mediated migration of dendritic cells: F. Sierro, et al.; PNAS 98, 13722 (2001), Abstract; Full Text

General Literature References

Cutting edge: bacterial flagellin activates basolaterally expressed TLR5 to induce epithelial proinflammatory gene expression: A.T. Gewirtz, et al.; J. Immunol. 167, 1882 (2001), Abstract;
Flagellin, a novel mediator of Salmonella-induced epithelial activation and systemic inflammation: I kappa B alpha degradation, induction of nitric oxide synthase, induction of proinflammatory mediators, and cardiovascular dysfunction: T. Eaves-Pyles, et al.; J. Immunol. 166, 1248 (2001), Abstract;
Salmonella flagellin-dependent proinflammatory responses are localized to the conserved amino and carboxyl regions of the protein: T.D. Eaves-Pyles, et al.; J. Immunol. 167, 7009 (2001), Abstract;
Salmonella typhimurium translocates flagellin across intestinal epithelia, inducing a proinflammatory response: A.T. Gewirtz, et al.; J. Clin. Invest. 107, 99 (2001), Abstract;
The innate immune response to bacterial flagellin is mediated by Toll-like receptor 5: F. Hayashi, et al.; Nature 410, 1099 (2001), Abstract;
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli expresses a novel flagellin that causes IL-8 release from intestinal epithelial cells: T.S. Steiner, et al.; J. Clin. Invest. 105, 1769 (2000), Abstract;
Salmonella flagellin induces tumor necrosis factor alpha in a human promonocytic cell line: F. Ciacci-Woolwine, et al.; Infect. Immun. 66, 1127 (1998), Abstract;
Locations of terminal segments of flagellin in the filament structure and their roles in polymerization and polymorphism: Y. Mimori-Kiyosue, et al.; J. Mol. Biol. 270, 222 (1997), Abstract;

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