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Activator of TLR2/TLR6 complex.
ALX-162-034-C500 500 µg 2,051.00 USD
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MALP-2 was originally isolated from Mycoplasma fermentans. This MALP-2 corresponds to the originally isolated isomer, which expresses potent endotoxin-like activity and approaches in certain experimental systems the toxicity of LPS. For description of the stereochemistry of MALP-2. MALP-2 signalling, unlike that of LPS, is not transduced via TLR4, but is induced via TLR2 and TLR6 signalling. For more information about MALP-2 see BULK size (500μg) of biologically active, pyrogen-free and sterile MALP-2 for in vitro and animal in vivo studies.

Product Details

Alternative Name:Macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2, S-[2,3-bis(Palmityloxy)-(2R)-propyl-cysteinyl-GNNDESNISFKEK]
Formulation:Liquid. Pyrogen-free, sterile solution in 33% (v/v) 2-propanol/water.
Purity Detail:HPLC purified
Shipping:Dry Ice
Short Term Storage:-20°C
Long Term Storage:-80°C
Use/Stability:Stable for at least 3 years when stored at -20°C. This stock solution is stable for many months when kept in the refrigerator. MALP-2 solutions in the presene of carrier (50mM octyl glucoside, see Background/Technical Information below) are stable at +4°C at least 6 weeks. Some (10%) decrease of activity may occur shortly after transfer into new vessels. This is not due to decomposition but to adsorption (see below). Storage at room temperature for short periods of time does not influence bioactivity. When deep-frozen, MALP-2 does not loose activity within years.
Handling:Avoid accidental injection, extreme care should be taken with hypodermic syringes. Avoid inhalation and prevent this compound from entering the bloodstream. Avoid freeze/thaw cycles.
Technical Info/Product Notes:MALP-2 sticks avidly to glass or plastic. Since it is active at very low concentrations, i.e. at high dilutions, these low amounts of material tend to become adsorbed to pipette tips and plastic or glass containers. To avoid this, prepare several dilution steps of the MALP-2 stock solution with medium containing 5% autologous serum or buffers with 2% HSA. The presence of 50mM octyl glucoside in the first dilution step is often beneficial and gives rise to higher activity. Avoid small volumes in large vessels. Do not filter.Because of the ester-bound fatty acids, MALP-2 is sensitive to alkali or acid. The medium should be preconditioned in the CO2 incubator in order to ensure that the pH does not become alkaline. Add cells in preconditioned medium as soon as possible and incubate.
Regulatory Status:RUO - Research Use Only

Product Literature References

CD14 and TRIF govern distinct responsiveness and responses in mouse microglial TLR4 challenges by structural variants of LPS: T. Regen, et al.; Brain Behav. Immun. 25, 957 (2011), Abstract;
The role of TLR2 in the inflammatory activation of mouse fibroblasts by human antiphospholipid antibodies: N. Satta, et al.; Blood 109, 1507 (2007), Abstract;
CD14 is required for MyD88-independent LPS signaling: Z. Jiang, et al.; Nat. Immunol. 6, 565 (2005), Abstract;
IRF-7 is the master regulator of type-I interferon-dependent immune responses: K. Honda, et al.; Nature 434, 772 (2005), Abstract;
The tumor suppressor CYLD Acts as a Negative Regulator for Toll-like Receptor 2 Signaling via Negative Cross-talk with TRAF6 and TRAF7: H. Yoshida, et al.; J. Biol. Chem. 280, 41111 (2005), Abstract; Full Text
Differential recognition of structural details of bacterial lipopeptides by toll-like receptors: M. Morr, et al.; Eur. J. Immunol. 32, 3337 (2002), Abstract;
In vivo effects of a synthetic 2-kilodalton macrophage-activating lipopeptide of Mycoplasma fermentans after pulmonary application: A. Luhrmann, et al.; Infect. Immun. 70, 3785 (2002), Abstract; Full Text
The Mycoplasma-derived lipopeptide MALP-2 is a potent mucosal adjuvant: F. Rharbaoui, et al.; Eur. J. Immunol. 32, 2857 (2002), Abstract;
Discrimination of bacterial lipoproteins by Toll-like receptor 6: O. Takeuchi, et al.; Int. Immunol. 13, 933 (2001), Abstract;
MALP-2, a Mycoplasma lipopeptide with classical endotoxic properties: end of an era of LPS monopoly?: C. Galanos, et al.; J. Endotox. Res. 6, 471 (2000), Abstract;
Induction of cytokines and chemokines in human monocytes by Mycoplasma fermentans-derived lipoprotein MALP-2: A. Kaufmann, et al.; Infect. Immun. 67, 6303 (1999), Abstract; Full Text
Isolation, structure elucidation, and synthesis of a macrophage stimulatory lipopeptide from Mycoplasma fermentans acting at picomolar concentration: P.F. Mühlradt, et al.; J. Exp. Med. 185, 1951 (1997), Abstract; Full Text
Purification and partial biochemical characterization of a Mycoplasma fermentans-derived substance that activates macrophages to release nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-6: P.F. Muhlradt and M. Frisch; Infect. Immun. 62, 3801 (1994), Abstract;

General Literature References

Site-specific proteolysis of the MALP-404 lipoprotein determines the release of a soluble selective lipoprotein-associated motif-containing fragment and alteration of the surface phenotype of Mycoplasma fermentans: K.L. Davis & K.S. Wise; Infect. Immun. 70, 1129 (2002), Abstract; Full Text
Synergic effects of mycoplasmal lipopeptides and extracellular ATP on activation of macrophages: T. Into, et al.; Infect. Immun. 70, 3586 (2002), Abstract; Full Text

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