Online Purchasing Account You are logged on as Guest. LoginRegister a New AccountShopping cart (Empty)
United States 

What’s lurking beneath the surface?

Posted By
Tags: Toxicology

Cyanobacteria are a phylum of bacteria also referred to as blue-green algae. They rely on the production of energy through photosynthesis and produce gaseous oxygen as a by-product. For this reason, they are often deemed responsible for both the conversion of Earth’s atmosphere into an oxidizing one 3.5 billion years ago and the stimulation of biodiversity. They are naturally found in freshwater lakes, ponds and slow-moving streams. Under certain environmental conditions such as water pollution and depending on the genera, cyanobacteria population can explode suddenly and cause harmful algal blooms (HABs). These HABs produce neurotoxins, cytotoxins, endotoxins and hepatotoxins termed cyanotoxins, which can pose a danger to humans and animals. Indeed, some of these cyanotoxins are very powerful poisons capable of causing rapid death by respiratory failure. They can be grouped into three large groups: amino acids (e.g. BMAA), cyclic peptides (e.g. microcystins and nodularins) and alkaloids (e.g. anatoxins, lipopolysaccharides and saxitoxins).


Belonging to the latter, cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a potent cyanotoxin first identified as the probable cause of a severe case of human poisoning from a local drinking water supply in Australia in 1979. It is produced by several species of freshwater cyanobacteria. It was described as being toxic to liver and kidney although its precise mechanism of toxicity remains poorly understood. Several researchers have since then tried to shed some light on the mode of action of this toxin. Exposure to cylindrospermopsin is, in most cases, ingested orally. Consequently, Dr. Huguet and colleagues from the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety conducted a transcriptomic analysis of human intestinal Caco-2 cells exposed to CYN to identify key cytotoxic players. Using a subtoxic concentration of CYN (1.6µM for 24 hours), they demonstrated that 522 genes involved in 22 biological processes and 50 genes involved in 3 biological processes were up- and down-regulated, respectively. They also revealed that most of these biological processes were involved in (A) growth arrest with the down-regulation of CDKN1a and UHRF1, (B) DNA repair with the up-regulation of Aprataxin and PMS2, and (C) chromatin remodeling with the up-regulation of MYST1, KAT5 and EHMT2.

More recently, Dr. Straser and collaborators from the Slovenian National Institute of Biology investigated the consequences of treating human liver hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells with Enzo’s cylindrospermopsin. A dose-dependent intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which increased steadily over a period of five hours following treatment with subtoxic concentrations of CYN (0-0.5µg/ml), was achieved. Using unmodified and modified comet assays to measure DNA damage and oxidative DNA damage, they demonstrated however that the increase in DNA strand breaks was unlikely to be due to oxidative stress. Finally, CYN significantly increased the mitochondrial membrane potential while no increase in the caspase 3 and 7 activity and in the number of apoptotic cells were obtained. These data suggest that DNA damage combined with the lack of apoptosis following treatment with non-cytotoxic concentrations of CYN may actually enhance its dangerousness with boosted risks of mutations and tumorigenesis. Altogether, these studies highlight the need for further work to completely understand the cytotoxicity of these toxins and discover new therapeutic avenues to counteract them.

Enzo Life Sciences offers a comprehensive portfolio of cyanotoxins including cylindrospermopsin as well as tools to study their cytotoxic effects, some of which are listed below:

Share this TechNote

Never miss a new TechNote!

Receive our TechNotes as soon as they are published.


Follow Us!

 
comments powered by Disqus
  1. A. Huguet, et al. Modulation of chromatin remodeling induced by the freshwater cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin in human intestinal caco-2 cells. PLoS One (2014) 9, e99121.
  2. A. Straser, et al. The influence of cylindrospermopsin on oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis induction in HepG2 cells. Chemosphere (2013) 92, 24.

Related Products

Comet SCGE assay kit 

Fast and simple electrophoresis method to measure DNA fragmentation
Fluorescence microscopy | Print as PDF
 
ADI-900-166 50 tests 295.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

Microcystin-LR 

Inhibitor of PP1 and PP2A
101043-37-2, Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-012-C100 100 µg 71.00 USD
 
ALX-350-012-C500 500 µg 277.00 USD
 
ALX-350-012-M001 1 mg 491.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

Microcystin-RR 

PP2A inhibitor
111755-37-4, Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-043-C050 50 µg 95.00 USD
 
ALX-350-043-C100 100 µg 174.00 USD
 
ALX-350-043-C250 250 µg 333.00 USD
 
ALX-350-043-C500 500 µg 662.00 USD
 
ALX-350-043-M001 1 mg 1,182.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

Microcystin-YR 

Inhibitor of PP1 and PP2A
101064-48-6, Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-044-C025 25 µg 166.00 USD
 
ALX-350-044-C100 100 µg 314.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

Microcystin-LW 

157622-02-1, Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-080-C025 25 µg 175.00 USD
 
ALX-350-080-C100 100 µg 496.00 USD
 
ALX-350-080-M001 1 mg 3,165.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

Microcystin-LF 

154037-70-4, Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-081-C025 25 µg 175.00 USD
 
ALX-350-081-C100 100 µg 541.00 USD
 
ALX-350-081-M001 1 mg 3,450.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

Microcystin-LA 

Inhibitor of PP2A and calcineurin
96180-79-9, Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-096-C025 25 µg 181.00 USD
 
ALX-350-096-C100 100 µg 280.00 USD
 
ALX-350-096-M001 1 mg 2,100.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

Microcystin-LY 

123304-10-9, Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-148-C025 25 µg 174.00 USD
 
ALX-350-148-C100 100 µg 505.00 USD
 
ALX-350-148-M001 1 mg 3,225.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

Cylindrospermopsin 

Protein synthesis inhibitor
143545-90-8, Isolated from Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-149-C025 25 µg 181.00 USD
 
ALX-350-149-C100 100 µg 270.00 USD
 
ALX-350-149-M001 1 mg 1,695.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

Microcystin-WR 

138234-58-9, Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-167-C025 25 µg 197.00 USD
 
ALX-350-167-C100 100 µg 424.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

[D-Asp3]microcystin-RR 

Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-168-C100 100 µg Inquire for pricing
 
ALX-350-168-C025 25 µg Inquire for pricing
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

[D-Asp3]microcystin-LR 

Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-173-C025 25 µg 192.00 USD
 
ALX-350-173-C100 100 µg 415.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

Microcystin-HtyR 

Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-174-C025 25 µg 192.00 USD
 
ALX-350-174-C100 100 µg 417.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

Microcystin-HilR 

Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-177-C025 25 µg 195.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

Microcystin-LR (Analytical Standard) 

Inhibitor of PP1 and PP2A
101043-37-2, Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥99% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-431-C010 10 µg 182.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

Microcystin-RR (Analytical Standard) 

PP2A inhibitor
111755-37-4, Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥99% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-432-C010 10 µg 215.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

Microcystin-LR monoclonal antibody (MC10E7) 

ELISA, IHC (PS), WB | Print as PDF
 
ALX-804-320-C200 200 µg 296.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

Microcystins (Adda specific) ELISA kit 

Patented ELISA for rapid detection of microcystins and nodularins.
ELISA | Print as PDF
 
ALX-850-319-KI01 96 wells 724.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

Hepatotox Set™ 1 

Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa and Nodularia spumigena., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-850-325-KI01 1 Set 932.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

GFP-CERTIFIED® Apoptosis/Necrosis detection kit 

Multiplex assay that distinguishes between  healthy, early apoptotic, late apoptotic and necrotic cells, compatible with GFP and other green fluorescent probes
Flow Cytometry, Fluorescence microscopy, Fluorescent detection | Print as PDF
 
ENZ-51002-25 25 assays 164.00 USD
 
ENZ-51002-100 100 assays 380.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

ROS-ID® Total ROS/Superoxide detection kit 

Directly Monitor Global Levels  of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), and Specifically Superoxide
Flow Cytometry, Fluorescence microscopy, Fluorescent detection, HTS | Print as PDF
 
ENZ-51010 1 Kit 247.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

ROS-ID® Total ROS detection kit 

Flow Cytometry, Fluorescence microscopy, Fluorescent detection, HTS | Print as PDF
 
ENZ-51011 1 Kit 176.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

ROS-ID® Superoxide detection kit 

Flow Cytometry, Fluorescence microscopy, Fluorescent detection, HTS | Print as PDF
 
ENZ-51012 1 Kit 180.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

LYSO-ID® Red cytotoxicity kit (GFP-CERTIFIED®) 

A Rapid, Quantitative and HTS‐compatible Live Cell Cytotoxicity Assay 
Fluorescence microscopy, Fluorescent detection | Print as PDF
 
ENZ-51015-KP002 1 Kit 343.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

MITO-ID® Membrane potential cytotoxicity kit  

A Real-time Mitochondrial membrane Potential Assay with Superior Sensitivity
HTS, Microplate | Print as PDF
 
ENZ-51019-KP002 1 Kit 265.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

NUCLEAR-ID® Green chromatin condensation detection kit  

A highly permeable green-emitting  dye for enhanced detection of apoptosis-induced chromatin condensation
Flow Cytometry, Fluorescence microscopy, Fluorescent detection | Print as PDF
 
ENZ-51021-K200 1 Kit 298.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

CYTO-ID® Autophagy detection kit 

A no-transfection, quantitative assay for monitoring autophagy in live cells
Flow Cytometry, Fluorescence microscopy, Fluorescent detection, HTS | Print as PDF
 
ENZ-51031-0050 50 tests 215.00 USD
 
ENZ-51031-K200 200 tests 441.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

PROTEOSTAT® Aggresome detection kit  

Robust, quantitative detection of aggresomes relevant to the study of neurodegenerative disease, liver disease and  toxicology
Flow Cytometry, Fluorescence microscopy, Fluorescent detection | Print as PDF
 
ENZ-51035-0025 25 tests 112.00 USD
 
ENZ-51035-K100 100 tests 308.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

NUCLEAR-ID® Blue/Green cell viability reagent 

Distinguishes between live vs dead cells in a single reagent.
≥93% (HPLC), Flow Cytometry, Fluorescence microscopy, Fluorescent detection | Print as PDF
 
ENZ-53004-C100 100 µl 260.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

NUCLEAR-ID® Blue/Red cell viability reagent (GFP-CERTIFIED®) 

Distinguishes between live vs dead cells in a single reagent.
≥93% (HPLC), Flow Cytometry, Fluorescence microscopy, Fluorescent detection | Print as PDF
 
ENZ-53005-C100 100 µl 250.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

NUCLEAR-ID® Red/Green cell viability reagent 

Distinguishes between live vs dead cells in a single reagent
≥93% (HPLC), Flow Cytometry, Fluorescence microscopy, Fluorescent detection | Print as PDF
 
ENZ-53006-C100 100 µl 255.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

Recommend this page

 
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.
Keep in touch

©2019 Enzo Life Sciences, Inc.,