Online Purchasing Account You are logged on as Guest. LoginRegister a New AccountShopping cart (Empty)
United States 

The Matrix Reprogrammed: a Revolution in the Field of Stem Cells

Since their discovery, pluripotent stem cells have been thought to be the driving force of regenerative medicine. The most well-known source of pluripotent stem cells is the embryo and its embryonic stem cells. However, controversy surrounds their use due to the destruction or manipulation of the embryo. In 2012, Professor Shinya Yamanaka and Sir John Gurdon were awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize for the discovery that mature cells can be reverted back to a pluripotent status. These cells were referred to as induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPSCs, and can be engineered following the introduction of four specific genes (c-MYC, KLF4, OCT3/4, and SOX2) and subsequent selection for FBX15 expression (Takahashi et al., 2006). This breakthrough discovery for generating iPSCs allows one to bypass the need for embryos. In addition, it eliminates the risk of immune rejection after transplantation since individuals can have their own pluripotent stem cell line administered as a therapeutic. Unfortunately, their utilization holds significant risks due to the introduction of viruses to genomically alter the cells and the potential expression of oncogenes. There is, therefore, a need for alternative methods for production of pluripotent cells.

Recently, Dr. Obokata and colleagues from the Harvard Medical School and the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology reported the discovery of a stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency (STAP) in mouse cells. They noticed that after a short mild-acid treatment, CD45+ cells could be reprogrammed and become pluripotent. The promoters of pluripotent markers, such as OCT4 and Nanog, were shown to be heavily demethylated. Cells also expressed high levels of pluripotent markers, but not early lineage-specific marker genes. Unlike embryonic stem cells, STAP cells were not able to self-renew, form colonies in a dissociation environment or remain stable in culture, but could be easily derived into expandable pluripotent cell lines. Interestingly, similar results were obtained with cells from different tissue origins. Finally, STAP cells generated from CD45+ cells were used in a blastocyst injection assay. All chimeric mice developed normally and CD45+-derived STAP cells were found in all tissues examined. STAP cells were also capable of producing an entire embryonic structure on their own in a tetraploid complementation assay.

This discovery offers great promise in the area of personalized medicine and could have a huge impact on stem cell research in terms of cost and time. Unfortunately, it also raises more questions than answers. Is the genetic information in these STAP cells still of quality? What is the complete methylation status and the histone modification profile of STAP cells? Are the STAP cell lines stable? What is the mechanism behind such a phenomenon? Could it be the release of paracrine signals following the damage from mild-acid treatment or could it be via internal coping mechanisms involving key survival factors such as HSPs, NF-κB or p53? Why are teratoma and teratocarcinoma not often seen in vivo following exposure to an environmental stress? And most importantly, can these results be constantly reproduced not only in mouse cells but also in human cells?

Enzo Life Sciences offers a variety of products to study STAP cells and decipher the mechanisms behind this reprogramming phenomenon including genomic, transcriptomic and epigenetic analysis kits and ELISA kits; some of which are described below:

Share this TechNote

Follow Us!

Offering integrated solutions for the differentiation and detection of stem cell populations.

 

References:

  • Obokata H, et al. Stimulus-triggered fate conversion of somatic cells into pluripotency. Nature (2014) 505: 641.
  • Obokata H, et al. Bidirectional developmental potential in reprogrammed cells with acquired pluripotency. Nature (2014) 505: 676.
  • Takahashi K, et al. Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors. Cell (2006) 126: 663.

Related Products

BioArray™ Low Input RNA Amplification and Biotin Labeling System 

Lower RNA Input with High Yield – High Quality Biotin-labeling
| Print as PDF
 
ENZ-42422-0010 10 Reactions 700.00 USD
 

BioArray HighYield® RNA transcript labeling kit (T7) 

| Print as PDF
 
ENZ-42655-10 10 Reactions 781.00 USD
 
ENZ-42655-20A 20 Reactions 1,331.00 USD
 
ENZ-42655-40 40 Reactions 2,428.00 USD
 
ENZ-42655-100 100 Reactions 4,576.00 USD
 

CGH labeling kit for oligo arrays 

Exceptional Cyanine Dye Performance with Proprietary Labeling Technology 
| Print as PDF
 
ENZ-42671-K010 20 Reactions INQUIRE
 
ENZ-42671-K100 200 Reactions INQUIRE
 

BioPanel® methylation detection kit for human pluripotent stem cells (Light Cycler™ 480 RT PCR) 

Rapid, high-throughput assay for quantifying methylation to determine pluripotency state of cells using Light Cycler™ 480 RT PCR
| Print as PDF
 
ENZ-45007-0001 96 wells 525.00 USD
 

BioPanel® methylation detection kit for human pluripotent stem cells (CFX Touch™ RT PCR) 

Rapid, high-throughput assay for quantifying methylation to determine pluripotency state of cells using CFX Touch™ RT PCR
| Print as PDF
 
ENZ-45008-0001 96 wells 525.00 USD
 

BioPanel® methylation detection kit for human pluripotent stem cells (7500™ or 7900™ RT PCR) 

Rapid, high-throughput assay for quantifying methylation to determine pluripotency state of cells using 7500™ or 7900™ RT PCR
| Print as PDF
 
ENZ-45009-0001 96 wells 525.00 USD
 

BioPanel® methylation detection kit for human pluripotent stem cells (custom format) 

Real-time bisulfite-free determination of region specific DNA methylation in Rab25, NANOG, MGMT, GBP3 and LYS1 gene promoters, custom format
| Print as PDF
 
ENZ-45010-0048 48 Tests 525.00 USD
 

[pSer78]HSP27 (human), ELISA kit 

Most comprehensive portfolio of heat shock protein (chaperone) products commercially available.
ELISA, Colorimetric detection | Print as PDF
 
ADI-900-165 96 wells 460.00 USD
 

Comet SCGE assay kit 

Fluorescent detection | Print as PDF
 
ADI-900-166 50 tests 237.00 USD
 

[pSer15]HSP27 (human), ELISA kit 

Only commercially available ELISA kit for ultra-sensitive detection of human phospho-Ser15 HSP27 in cell lysates, plasma, and serum.
ELISA, Colorimetric detection | Print as PDF
 
ADI-900-170 96 wells 470.00 USD
 

HSF1 ELISA kit 

Sensitive ELISA kit for this key transcription factor for heat shock protein (chaperone) research.
ELISA, Colorimetric detection | Print as PDF
 
ADI-900-198 96 wells 460.00 USD
 

[pSer326]HSF1 ELISA kit 

Sensitive ELISA kit for this key transcription factor for heat shock protein (chaperone) research.
ELISA, Colorimetric detection | Print as PDF
 
ADI-900-199 96 wells 430.00 USD
 

5-Methylcytosine DNA ELISA kit 

Streamlined, rapid ELISA kit to quantify 5-methlycytosine in DNA with results that closely correlate to mass spectrometry analysis.
ELISA, Colorimetric detection | Print as PDF
 
ADI-900-224-0001 96 wells 450.00 USD
 

5-Hydroxymethylcytosine DNA ELISA kit 

Highly sensitive, rapid ELISA kit to quantify 5-hydroxymethlycytosine in DNA with results that closely correlate to mass spectrometry analysis.
ELISA, Colorimetric detection | Print as PDF
 
ADI-900-225-0001 96 wells 450.00 USD
 

DNA damage ELISA kit 

Rapid DNA damage ELISA kit for cancer, apoptosis and oxidative stress.
ELISA, Colorimetric detection | Print as PDF
 
ADI-EKS-350 96 wells 700.00 USD
 

NFκB p65 ELISA kit 

ELISA, Chemiluminescence | Print as PDF
 
ADI-EKS-446 2x96 wells 990.00 USD
 

HSP27 (human), ELISA kit 

Most comprehensive portfolio of heat shock protein (chaperone) products commercially available.
ELISA, Colorimetric detection | Print as PDF
 
ADI-EKS-500 96 wells 600.00 USD
 

HSP70 ELISA kit 

Widely used ELISA HSP70 kit for chaperone and stress research.
ELISA, Colorimetric detection | Print as PDF
 
ADI-EKS-700B 96 wells 530.00 USD
 

HSP70 high sensitivity ELISA kit 

Only commercially available kit specifically validated and sensitive enough to quantify HSP70 (HSP72) in serum and plasma samples.
ELISA, Colorimetric detection | Print as PDF
 
ADI-EKS-715 96 wells 530.00 USD
 

HSP90α (human), ELISA kit 

Most sensitive, rapid ELISA kit for highly specific, quantitative detection of human HSP90α.
ELISA, Colorimetric detection | Print as PDF
 
ADI-EKS-895 96 wells 710.00 USD
 

p53 (human) ELISA kit 

ELISA | Print as PDF
 
ALX-850-057-KI01 96 wells 640.00 USD
 

Recommend this page

 
Keep in touch

©2014 Enzo Life Sciences, Inc.,