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MICROCYSTINS

and Other Cyanobacterial Toxins

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A close look at microcystins

Cyanobacterial toxins have been shown to be hazardous to humans and animals via direct and indirect routes of exposure such as ingestion of and contact with contaminated water, vegetables, fish/shellfish and through irrigation practices. Microcystins (MCs) are the most commonly encountered cyanotoxins. The toxins produced by Microcystis, Nostoc, Anabaena, Oscillatoria and Planktothrix cyanobacteria are defined by their cyclic heptapeptide structure as well as by the rare amino acids (ADDA or dehydroalanine) that they share. These toxins are potent inhibitors of the eukaryotic protein phosphatase families PP1 and PP2A leading to cell death (apoptosis). Studies have also shown that MCs play a role in liver toxicity and possibly even stimulate the growth of cancer cells following exposure.

More than a dozen countries have developed regulations or guidelines for microcystins in drinking water and recreational waters. Currently there are no mandatory U.S. federal water regulations for cyanotoxins in effect, but in 2015 the EPA issued 10-Day Drinking Water Health Advisories (HAs) for cyanobacterial toxins, microcystins, and cylindrospermopsin to assist managers of public or community water systems in protecting the public from these contaminants.

<b>FIGURE 1:</b> 3D-structure of microcystin-LR/PP1A-crystalline complex. Courtesy of Prof. Marcel Jaspars, Marine Natural Products Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen.
 
 
  • Potent and selective inhibitor of PP1 & PP2A
  • Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa
  • High purity ≥ 95% (HPLC)
  • Hepatotoxic
  • Tumor promoter
 
 
  • Potent inhibitor of PP1 & PP2A
  • Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa
  • Analog of Microcystins-LR with Tyr substituted in place of Leu
  • High purity ≥ 95% HPLC
  • Useful as a reference compound in environmental analysis
 
  • Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa
  • Analog of Microcystins-LR with Phe substituted in place of Arg
  • High purity ≥ 95% HPLC
  • Hydrophobic and believed to be more cell permeable than othermicrocystins
 
 
  • Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa
  • Analog of Microcystins-LR with Tyr substituted in place of Arg
  • High purity ≥ 95% HPLC
 
  • Inhibits PP2A and PP3 more potently than PP1
  • Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa
  • Analog of Microcystin-LR with Ala substituted in place of Arg
  • High purity ≥ 95% HPLC
 
 
  • Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa
  • Analog of Microcystin-LR with Trp substituted in place of Arg
  • High purity ≥ 95% HPLC
  • Hydrophobic and believed to be more cell permeable than other microcystins
  • May prove useful in biochemical studies in intact cells
 
  • Potent inhibitor of PP2A
  • Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa
  • Arg-Arg Analog of Microcystins-LR
  • High purity ≥ 95% HPLC
  • Hepatotoxic, although found to be up to 10-fold less toxic than microcystin-LR
  • May prove useful in biochemical studies in intact cells
 

Patented ELISA for rapid detection of microcystins and nodularins

  • Detection Limit: 0.1μg/l (range 0.15 − 5μg/l)
  • Does not cross-react with other non-related toxins or compounds
  • No pre-sample preparation required
  • 96-well microplate format with ready-to-use reagents
  • Total time for measurement is less than 2.5 hours
  • Enables simultaneous measurement of multiple samples at reasonable costs

Cross-reactivity pattern against microcystins and nodularin congeners

 

Nodularin

Nodularin, produced by brackish and freshwater species of Nodularia (most commonly N. spumigena), is a cyclic pentapeptide similar to microcystin-LR, which also possesses a characteristic Adda amino acid but with increased water solubility. Toxicity and mode of action of nodularin is similar to that of microcystins, the major difference is that the binding to protein phosphatases is irreversible. Nodularin is a great complementary tool to microcystins for studying cellular processes.

  • Inhibitor of PP1 & PP2A
  • Genotoxic, Hepatotoxic
  • Induces oxidative DNA damage
  • Induces apoptosis
  • High purity ≥ 95% (HPLC)
 

Cylindrospermopsin

Cylindrospermopsin is a cyanobacterial cytotoxin comprising a tricyclic guanidine moiety combined with a hydroxymethyl uracil. It is produced by species of several genera, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, and Aphanizomenon ovalisporum, which exhibits a completely different mechanism of toxicity than microcystins. Cylindrospermopsin inhibits plant protein synthesis.

  • Protein synthesis inhibitor
  • Tricyclic alkaloid hepatotoxin
  • High purity ≥ 95% (HPLC)
 

Related Products

Anabaenopeptin A 

Inhibitor of protein phosphatase.
Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-183-C100 100 µg 221.00 USD
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Anabaenopeptin B 

Inhibitor of protein phosphatase.
161897-74-1, Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
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Hepatotox Set™ 1 

Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa and Nodularia spumigena., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
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[D-Asp3]microcystin-RR 

Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
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Microcystin-LR (Analytical Standard) 

Inhibitor of PP1 and PP2A
101043-37-2, Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥99% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
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Microcystin-RR (Analytical Standard) 

PP2A inhibitor
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Microcystin-HilR 

Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-177-C025 25 µg 185.00 USD
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Microcystin-HtyR 

Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-174-C025 25 µg 182.00 USD
 
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[D-Asp3]microcystin-LR 

Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
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ALX-350-173-C100 100 µg 395.00 USD
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Microcystin-WR 

138234-58-9, Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-167-C025 25 µg 187.00 USD
 
ALX-350-167-C100 100 µg 404.00 USD
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Nodularin (linear) 

Precursor of the highly toxic cyclic pentapeptide, nodularin.
Isolated from Nodularia spumigena., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-182-C100 100 µg 214.00 USD
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