GLP and Exendin
GLP (glucagon-like peptide) functions in the regulation of blood glucose through insulin, and plays a role in obesity and diabetes. GLP-1 is an important gastrointestinal peptide hormone or incretin, which is released when we eat, produced by tissue specific post-translational processing from a glucagon precursor, and inactivated by dipeptidylpeptidase DPP-4 enzymes.
Exendin-4 is a 39 amino-acid peptide found in venom from the Gila monster. It is a member of the glucagon-secretin family of peptide hormones and neuropeptides. As an agonist of the GLP-1 receptor, Exendin-4 is a potent stimulator of insulin secretion and has a much longer half life than GLP-1 (~2 minutes) making it a suitable drug candidate for the treatment of obesity and type-2 diabetes.
- AMP’D® GLP-1 ELISA Kit
- GLP Antibodies
- Exendin Antibodies
- GLP Proteins
- Exendin-4 Protein
Lipocalin-2, Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin (NGAL)
NGAL (also known as Lipocalin-2 or Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin) is a small, ~25kDa secreted protein expressed in epithelial tissues and released into both urine and blood upon kidney tubular damage. The protein is protease resistant and over-expressed during inflammation, infection and certain cancers. During acute renal failure (ARF) caused by either ischemia or nephrotoxicity, NGAL is secreted in high levels into blood and urine within 2 hours or less of injury to the kidney. NGAL is also released at the time of acute kidney injury (AKI) unlike serum creatinine, another kidney diagnostic biomarker which may not be seen until 72 hours after injury when up to 50% of renal function may have been lost.
- NGAL ELISA Kits
- NGAL Antibodies
- NGAL Proteins
Adipose tissue contains differentiated cells called adipocytes that are specialized in storing fat. In addition to their function in controlling energy homeostasis, adipocytes release endocrine and paracrine signaling molecules called adipokines that are important in many physiological and metabolic processes. Some adipokines such as adiponectin, omentin, Nampt (Visfatin/PBEF), vaspin, resistin or RBP4 are involved in insulin signaling. Others regulate food intake and lipid metabolism (e.g. leptin, chemerin).