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Chemilum de Lys® HDAC/SIRT Chemiluminescent drug discovery kit

All the Benefits of Chemiluminescent Detection Without Any of the Side Effects
 
BML-AK532-0001 96 wells 571.00 USD
 
  • High Specificity assay eliminates false positives or negatives
  • Superior Signal-to-Noise ratio with no interference from cell extract detergents
  • Delivers consistent results from a validated system

The HDAC/SIRT Chemiluminescent Drug Discovery Kit is a complete assay system designed to measure histone deacetylase (HDAC) and sirtuin activity in cell or nuclear extracts, immunoprecipitates or purified enzymes. It comes in a convenient 96-well format, with all reagents necessary for chemilumnescent HDAC activity measurements and calibration of the assay. In addition, a HeLa nuclear extract, rich in HDAC activity, is included with the kit. The extract is useful as either a positive control or as the source of HDAC activity for inhibitor/drug screening. Also included are Trichostatin A and Nicotinamide, which may be used as model inhibitors for HDACs and sirtuins, respectively.
The HDAC Chemiluminescent Activity Assay is based on the unique Chemilum de Lys®  Substrate and Developer combination.
The Chemilum de Lys® system (Chemiluminescent Histone deAcetylase Lysyl Substrate/Developer) is a highly sensitive and convenient alternative to radiolabeled, acetylated histones or peptide/HPLC methods for the assay of histone deacetylases. The assay procedure has three steps (Fig. 1). First, the Chemilum de Lys® Substrate, which comprises an acetylated lysine side chain, is incubated with a sample containing HDAC activity (HeLa nuclear or other extract, purified enzyme, bead-bound immunocomplex, etc.). Deacetylation of the substrate sensitizes the substrate so that, in the second step, treatment with the Chemilum de Lys® Developer followed by Enhancer produces light. The reaction is luciferase-free.
 

BML-AK532 Fig1
BML-AK532 Fig2
Performing the Chemilum de Lys HDAC Activity Assay. The procedure is done in three stages. First, the components of the deacetylation reaction (HeLa extract, buffer or test compound, substrate) are mixed. Following an incubation in which substrate deacetylation takes place, Developer is added and mixed. This stops the deacetylation and produces a product that will generate a chemiluminescent signal when enhancer is added. The signal can be read in 60 min, after the addition of Enhancer. The scheme depicts mixes for “Control” or “Test Sample” reactions. When performing the assay on 384 well plates, all volumes should be cut in half.
BML-AK532 Fig3
Kinetics of Chemilum de Lys Substrate Deacetylation by HeLa HDAC Activity. HeLa Nuclear extract (0.35 µl/7 µg per well) was incubated (37°C) with indicated concentrations of substrate. Reactions were stopped after 10 min. with Chemilum de Lys Developer, incubated for 120 minutes, then Enhancer was added and chemiluminescence measured (BMG Labtech, FluoStar Optima). Points are the mean of three determinations and error bars are standard errors of the means. Each determination is the average of at least five chemiluminescence readings taken in the first ten minutes. Kinetic parameters and the line derive from a non-linear least squares fit of the data to the Michaelis-Menten equation (Microsoft XL, Solver tool).
BML-AK532 Fig8
BML-AK532 table
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BML-AK532 Fig1 BML-AK532 Fig2 BML-AK532 Fig3 BML-AK532 Fig8 BML-AK532 table

Product Specification

Alternative Name:Histone deacetylase fluorescent assay kit
 
Applications:Chemiluminescence, HTS
 
Use/Stability:Store all components except the microplate at -70°C for the highest stability. The HeLa Nuclear Extract, BML-KI140, must be handled with particular care in order to retain maximum enzymatic activity. Defrost it quickly in a RT water bath or by rubbing between fingers, then immediately store on an ice bath. The remaining unused extract should be refrozen quickly, by placing at -70°C. If possible, snap freeze in liquid nitrogen or a dry ice/ethanol bath. To minimize the number of freeze/thaw cycles, aliquot the extract into separate tubes and store at -70°C. The Chemilum de Lys® Substrate, when diluted in Assay Buffer, may precipitate after freezing and thawing. It is best, therefore, to dilute only the amount needed to perform the assays of that day.
 
Long Term Storage:-80°C
 
Kit/Set Contains:

Nuclear Extract from HeLa Cells (human cervical cancer cell line) (Prod. No. BML-KI140)
(100 µl; In 0.1M potassium chloride, 20mM HEPES/sodium hydroxide, pH 7.9, 20% (v/v) glycerol, 0.2mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 0.5mM dithiothreitol, 0.5mM PMSF, prepared according to a modification of J.D. Dignam et al. (1983) and S.M. Abmayr et al. (1988)). Storage: -70°C, avoid freeze/thaw cycles
Chemilum de Lys® Substrate (Prod. No. BML-KI598) (125 µl; 10mM in DMSO) Storage: -70°C
Chemilum de Lys® Developer Concentrate (20x) (Prod. No. BML-KI599) (300 µl; 20x stock solution, dilute in developer buffer before use) Storage: -70°C
Trichostatin A (HDAC Inhibitor) (Prod. No. BML-GR309-9090) (100 µl; 0.2mM in DMSO) Storage: -70°C
NAD (Sirtuin Substrate) (Prod. No. BML-KI282) (500 µl; 50mM β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (oxidized form) in 50mM TRIS-HCl, pH 8.0, 137mM sodium chloride, 2.7mM potassium chloride, 1mM magnesium chloride) Storage: -70°C
Nicotinamide (Sirtuin Inhibitor) (Prod. No. BML-KI283) (500µl; 50mM Nicotinamide in 50mM TRIS-HCl, pH 8.0, 137mM sodium chloride, 2.7mM potassium chloride, 1mM magnesium chloride) Storage: -70°C
HDAC Assay Buffer (Prod. No. BML-KI143) (20 ml; 50mM TRIS-HCl, pH 8.0, 137mM sodium chloride, 2.7mM potassium chloride, 1mM magnesium chlroide) Storage: -70°C
Developer Buffer (Prod. No. BML-KI600) (10ml; 50mM MES, pH 6.0, 40% DMSO) Storage: -70°C
Chemilum de Lys® Enhancer part A (Prod. No. BML-KI601) (2 x 1.2ml) Storage: -70°C
Chemilum de Lys® Enhancer part B (Prod. No. BML-KI602) (0.7ml) Storage: -70°C
1/2 volume white microplate (Prod. No. ADI-80-2406) Storage: Room temperature

 
Background / Technical Information:Histones form the protein core of nucleosomes, the DNA/protein complexes that are the subunits of eukaryotic chromatin. The histones’ N-terminal “tails” are subject to a variety of post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, methylation, ubiquitination, ADP-ribosylation and acetylation. These modifications have been proposed to constitute a ‘histone code’ with profound regulatory functions in gene transcription. The best studied of these modifications, acetylation of the ε-amino groups of specific histone lysine residues, are catalyzed by histone acetyltransferases (HATs). Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are responsible for hydrolytic removal of these acetyl groups.
Histone hyperacetylation correlates with an open, decondensed chromatin structure and gene activation, while hypoacetylation correlates with chromatin condensation and transcriptional repression. Consistent with this, HATs have been shown to associate with several transcriptional activators and some transcriptional activators have been found to have intrinsic HAT activity. Conversely, HDACs are found to associate with transcriptional repression complexes such as NuRD or those including Sin3.
Thus far, eleven human HDACs have been identified, all trichostatin A-sensitive and all homologs of either RPD3 (Class I HDACs) or HDA1 (Class II HDACs), yeast histone deacetylases. Interestingly, Sir2, the yeast mother cell longevity factor, and its mouse homolog, mSir2α, have been shown to be trichostatin A-insensitive, NAD+-dependent histone deacetylases. Human, archaeal and eubacterial Sir2 homologs also display NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase activity. These enzymes apparently function via a unique mechanism, which consumes NAD+ and couples lysine deacetylation to formation of nicotinamide and O-acetyl-ADP-ribose. The Sir2 family (sirtuins) thus constitutes a third class of HDACs, but its members have not been included in the HDAC (Class I/Class II) numbering scheme.
Histone deacetylase inhibitors have shown promise as anti-tumor agents and naturally this has stimulated interest in the screening of compounds for HDAC inhibition. Unfortunately, the standard techniques for HDAC assay are cumbersome. Use of [3H]acetyl-histone or [3H]acetyl-histone peptides as substrates involves an acid/ethyl acetate extraction step prior to scintillation counting. Unlabeled, acetylated histone peptides have been used as substrates, but reactions then require resolution by HPLC. The original Fluor de Lys® HDAC assay addressed these problems by providing an assay that can be carried out in two simple mixing steps, all on the same 96-well plate (384-well plates may also be used, but are not included). The Chemilum de Lys® assay has those same advantages, but also, due to chemiluminescent signal, avoids interference by fluorescence from compounds absorbing and/or emitting in the near UV and blue. In addition, the reaction is luciferase-free, thus avoiding compound interference with luciferase activity. The assay has been used successfully with class I, class IIb, class III (sirtuins) and class IV recombinant HDACs. Recent studies have indicated that some compounds shown to activate sirtuins with the fluorescent substrate do not activate deacetylation of the native peptide. The Chemilum de Lys® substrate appears to more closely mimic the natural substrate and does not show this substrate specific activation by resveratrol and other drugs that affect other HDAC or Sirtuin assays.
 

General Literature References

Histone deacetylase is a target of valproic acid-mediated cellular differentiation: N. Gurvich et al.; Cancer. Res. 64, 1079 (2004), Abstract;
Phosphorus-based SAHA analogues as histone deacetylase inhibitors: G.V. Kapustin et al.; Org. Lett. 5, 3053 (2003), Abstract;
Phosphorus-based SAHA analogues as histone deacetylase inhibitors: G.V. Kapustin et al.; Org. Lett. 5, 3053 (2003), Abstract;
Inhibition of silencing and accelerated aging by nicotinamide, a putative negative regulator of yeast sir2 and human SIRT1: K.J. Bitterman et al.; J. Biol. Chem. 277, 45099 (2002), Abstract;
Cloning and characterization of a histone deacetylase, HDAC9: X. Zhou et al.; PNAS 98, 10572 (2001), Abstract;
Coupling of histone deacetylation to NAD breakdown by the yeast silencing protein Sir2: Evidence for acetyl transfer from substrate to an NAD breakdown product: J.C. Tanny et al.; PNAS 98, 415 (2001), Abstract;
Identification of a class of small molecule inhibitors of the sirtuin family of NAD-dependent deacetylases by phenotypic screening: C.M. Groezigner et al.; J. Biol. Chem. 276, 38837 (2001), Abstract;
A phylogenetically conserved NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase activity in the Sir2 protein family: J.S. Smith et al.; PNAS 97, 6658 (2000), Abstract;
Acetylation and chromosomal functions: W.L. Cheung et al.; Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 12, 326 (2000), Abstract;
Cloning and characterization of a novel human class I histone deacetylase that functions as a transcription repressor: E. Hu et al.; J. Biol. Chem. 275, 15254 (2000), Abstract;
Histone deacetylases: silencers for hire: H.H. Ng et al.; Trends Biochem. Sci. 25, 121 (2000), Abstract;
Isolation of a novel histone deacetylase reveals that class I and class II deacetylases promote SMRT-mediated repression: H.-Y. Kao et al.; Genes Dev. 14, 55 (2000), Abstract;
Role of NAD(+) in the deacetylase activity of the SIR2-like proteins: J. Landry et al.; Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 278, 685 (2000), Abstract;
Silent information regulator 2 family of NAD- dependent histone/protein deacetylases generates a unique product, 1-O-acetyl-ADP-ribose: K.G. Tanner et al.; PNAS 97, 14178 (2000), Abstract;
The language of covalent histone modifications: B.D. Strahl et al.; Nature 403, 41 (2000), Abstract;
Transcriptional silencing and longevity protein Sir2 is an NAD-dependent histone deacetylase: S. Imai et al.; Nature 403, 795 (2000), Abstract;
A new family of human histone deacetylases related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae HDA1p: W. Fischle et al.; J. Biol. Chem. 274, 11713 (1999), Abstract;
HDAC4, a human histone deacetylase related to yeast HDA1, is a transcriptional corepressor: P. A. Wade et al.; Mol. Cell Biol. 19, 7816 (1999), Abstract;
Identification of a new family of higher eukaryotic histone deacetylases. Coordinate expression of differentiation-dependent chromatin modifiers: A. Verdel et al.; J. Biol. Chem. 274, 2440 (1999), Abstract;
Three proteins define a class of human histone deacetylases related to yeast Hda1p: C.M. Groezigner et al.; PNAS 96, 4868 (1999), Abstract;
SAP30, a novel protein conserved between human and yeast, is a component of a histone deacetylase complex: Y. Zhang et al.; Mol. Cell 1, 1021 (1998), Abstract;
Targeted recruitment of the Sin3-Rpd3 histone deacetylase complex generates a highly localized domain of repressed chromatin in vivo: D. Kadosh et al.; Mol. Cell. Biol. 18, 5121 (1998), Abstract;
Transcriptional repression by UME6 involves deacetylation of lysine 5 of histone H4 by RPD3: S.E.C. Rundlett et al.; Nature 392, 831 (1998), Abstract;
Histone acetylation in chromatin structure and transcription: M. Grunstein; Nature 389, 349 (1997), Abstract;
Isolation and characterization of cDNAs corresponding to an additional member of the human histone deacetylase gene family: W. M. Yang et al.; J Biol Chem 272, 28001 (1997), Abstract;
A mammalian histone deacetylase related to the yeast transcriptional regulator Rpd3p: J. Taunton et al.; Science 272, 408 (1996), Abstract;
Transcriptional repression by YY1 is mediated by interaction with a mammalian homolog of the yeast global regulator RPD3: W.M. Yang et al.; PNAS 93, 12845 (1996), Abstract;
Enzymatic deacetylation of histone: A. Inoue et al.; Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 36, 146 (1969), Abstract;

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