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LPS from Salmonella minnesota S-Form (TLRGRADE™) (Ready-to-Use)

TLR4 activator
 
ALX-581-020-L002 2 ml 231.00 USD
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Product Specification

Alternative Name:Lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella minnesota S-Form
 
Source:Smooth (S)-form LPS isolated and purified from Salmonella minnesota (wild type) by a modification of the PCP extraction method, converted to the uniform sodium salt form and dissolved in sterile pyrogen-free double distilled water.
 
Concentration:1mg/ml
 
Formulation:Liquid. Sterile, ready-to-use solution in pyrogen-free double distilled water.
 
Purity:Absence of detectable protein or DNA contaminants with agonistic TLR activity.
 
Activity:Specific activator of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Does not activate TLR2 or other TLRs as determined with splenocytes and macrophages from TLR4 deficient mice. Smooth (S)-form LPS are commonly the preferred choice for whole animal studies, whereas Rough (R)-form LPS are primarily used in cellular in vitro activation studies.
 
Shipping:Ambient
 
Long Term Storage:+4°C
 
Use/Stability:Stable for at least 1 year after receipt when stored at +4°C.
 
Handling:Do not ingest. Wear gloves and mask when handling this product! Avoid contact through all modes of exposure. LPS compounds are highly pyrogenic. Avoid accidental injection; extreme care should be taken when handling in conjunction with hypodermic syringes. Use must be restricted to qualified personnel.
 

Product Literature References

Endothelin receptor-antagonists suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine release from alveolar macrophages of non-smokers, smokers and COPD subjects: K. Gerlach, et al.; Eur. J. Pharmacol. 768, 123 (2015), Application(s): AM stimulation, Abstract;
Resveratrol impairs the release of steroid-resistant cytokines from bacterial endotoxin-exposed alveolar macrophages in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: J. Knobloch, et al.; Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 109, 138 (2011), Abstract;
Isolation and purification of R-form lipopolysaccharides: C. Galanos & O. Lüderitz; Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry 9, 11 (1993), Abstract;
Electrodialysis of lipopolysaccharides and their conversion to uniform salt forms: C. Galanos & O. Lüderitz; Eur. J. Biochem. 54, 603 (1975), Abstract;
A new method for the extraction of R lipopolysaccharides: C. Galanos, et al.; Eur. J. Biochem. 9, 245 (1969), Abstract;

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