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LPS from E. coli, Serotype O111:B4 (TLRgrade™) (Ready-to-Use)

TLR4 activator
 
ALX-581-012-L001 1 ml 134.00 USD
 
ALX-581-012-L002 2 ml 210.00 USD
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Product Specification

Alternative Name:Lipopolysaccharide from E. coli, Serotype O111:B4 S-form
 
Source:Smooth (S)-form LPS isolated and purified from E. coli O111:B4 by a modification of the phenol water extraction and PCP extraction method, converted to the uniform sodium salt form and dissolved in sterile pyrogen-free double distilled water.
 
Concentration:1mg/ml
 
Formulation:Liquid. Sterile, ready-to-use solution in pyrogen-free double distilled water.
 
Purity:Absence of detectable protein or DNA contaminants with agonistic TLR activity.
 
Activity:Specific activator of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. Does not activate TLR2 or other TLRs as determined with splenocytes and macrophages from TLR4 deficient mice. Smooth (S)-form LPS are commonly the preferred choice for whole animal studies, whereas Rough (R)-form LPS are primarily used in cellular in vitro activation studies.
 
Shipping:Ambient
 
Long Term Storage:+4°C
 
Use/Stability:Stable for at least 1 year after receipt when stored at +4°C.
 
Handling:Do not ingest. Wear gloves and mask when handling this product! Avoid contact through all modes of exposure. LPS compounds are highly pyrogenic. Avoid accidental injection; extreme care should be taken when handling in conjunction with hypodermic syringes. Use must be restricted to qualified personnel.
 
581-011 012 013
Figure: TLR4-dependent proliferation of mouse splenocytesMethod: 4x105 mouse spleen cells were incubated in 0.2ml per well with 10µg/ml LPS or with medium only. Proliferation was determined in triplicates by 3H-thymidine incorporation.
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581-011 012 013

Product Literature References

Monocyte Trafficking, Engraftment, and Delivery of Nanoparticles and an Exogenous Gene into the Acutely Inflamed Brain Tissue - Evaluations on Monocyte-Based Delivery System for the Central Nervous System: H.I. Tong, et al.; PLoS One 11, e0154022 (2016), Application(s): Incubation into the brain of mice, Abstract; Full Text
Alpha 1-Antitrypsin Does Not Inhibit Human Monocyte Caspase-1: M.A. Rahman, et al.; PLoS One 10, e0117330 (2015), Application(s): Cell Culture, Abstract; Full Text
Intrathecal heat shock protein 60 mediates neurodegeneration and demyelination in the CNS through a TLR4- and MyD88-dependent pathway: K. Rosenberger, et al.; Molec. Neurodegen. 10, 5 (2015), Application(s): Injection, Abstract; Full Text
Identification of TLR4 as the receptor that recognizes Shiga toxins in human neutrophils: M. Brigotti, et al.; J. Immunol. 191, 4748 (2013), Abstract;
LIM-only protein FHL2 activates NF-κB signaling in the control of liver regeneration and hepatocarcinogenesis: J. Dahan, et al.; Mol. Cell Biol. 33, 3299 (2013), Abstract;
Toll-like receptor 3 and 4 signalling through the TRIF and TRAM adaptors in haematopoietic cells promotes atherosclerosis: A. M. Lundberg et al.; Cardiovasc. Res. 99, 364 (2013), Abstract;
28 LDLR and properdin cooperate in LPS-mediated cell signalling: L. Francescut, et al.; Heart 9, e7 (2011), Abstract;
CC chemokine ligand-2 synergizes with the nonchemokine G protein-coupled receptor ligand fMLP in monocyte chemotaxis, and it cooperates with the TLR ligand LPS via induction of CXCL8: M. Gouwy, et al.; J. Leukoc. Biol. 86, 671 (2009), Abstract; Full Text
R-form LPS, the master key to the activation ofTLR4/MD-2-positive cells: M. Huber, et al.; Eur. J. Immunol. 36, 701 (2006), Abstract;
Isolation and purification of R-form lipopolysaccharides: C. Galanos & O. Lüderitz; Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry 9, 11 (1993), Abstract;
Electrodialysis of lipopolysaccharides and their conversion to uniform salt forms: C. Galanos & O. Lüderitz; Eur. J. Biochem. 54, 603 (1975), Abstract;
A new method for the extraction of R lipopolysaccharides: C. Galanos, et al.; Eur. J. Biochem. 9, 245 (1969), Abstract;

General Literature References

Noncanonical inflammasome activation by intracellular LPS independent of TLR4.: N. Kayagaki, et al.; Science 341, 1246 (2013), Abstract;
Effect of lipopolysaccharides of gram negative bacilli on the rat litter in utero: J.B. Thiersch; Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 109, 429 (1962), Abstract;

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