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LPS from Salmonella typhimurium S-form (TLRgrade™) (Ready-to-Use)

TLR4 activator
 
ALX-581-011-L001 1 ml 148.00 USD
 
ALX-581-011-L002 2 ml 231.00 USD
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Replaces Prod. #: ALX-581-004

Product Specification

Alternative Name:Lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella typhimurium S-form
 
Source:Smooth (S)-form LPS, isolated and purified from Salmonella typhimurium by modification of the phenol water extraction and PCP method, converted to the uniform salt form and dissolved in sterile pyrogen-free double distilled water.
 
Concentration:

1mg/ml

 
Formulation:Liquid. Sterile, ready-to-use solution in pyrogen-free double distilled water.
 
Purity:Absence of detectable protein or DNA contaminants with agonistic TLR activity.
 
Activity:Specific activator of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. Does not activate TLR2 or other TLRs as determined with splenocytes and macrophages from TLR4 deficient mice. Smooth (S)-form LPS are commonly the preferred choice for whole animal studies, whereas Rough (R)-form LPS are primarily used in cellular in vitro activation studies.
 
Shipping:Ambient
 
Long Term Storage:+4°C
 
Use/Stability:Stable for at least 1 year after receipt when stored at +4°C.
 
Handling:Do not ingest. Wear gloves and mask when handling this product! Avoid contact through all modes of exposure. LPS compounds are highly pyrogenic. Avoid accidental injection; extreme care should be taken when handling in conjunction with hypodermic syringes. Use must be restricted to qualified personnel.
 
581-011 012 013
Figure: TLR4-dependent proliferation of mouse splenocytesMethod: 4x105 mouse spleen cells were incubated in 0.2ml per well with 10µg/ml LPS or with medium only. Proliferation was determined in triplicates by 3H-thymidine incorporation.
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581-011 012 013

Product Literature References

Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation Is Independent of De Novo Gene Expression: G. Sollberger, et al.; PLoS One 11, e0157454 (2016), Application(s): Isolation and stimulation of human neutrophils, Abstract; Full Text
Design of glycoconjugate vaccines against invasive African Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium: S. Rondini, et al.; Infect. Immun. 83, 996 (2015), Abstract; Full Text
MyD88 signaling in nonhematopoietic cells protects mice against induced colitis by regulating specific EGF receptor ligands: K. Brandl, et al.; PNAS USA 107, 19967 (2010), Abstract; Full Text
CD14 regulates the dendritic cell life cycle after LPS exposure through NFAT activation: I. Zanoni, et al.; Nature 460, 264 (2009), Abstract; Full Text
The porin OmpD from nontyphoidal Salmonella is a key target for a protective B1b cell antibody response: C. Gil-Cruz, et al.; PNAS U.S.A. 106, 9803 (2009), Abstract; Full Text
R-form LPS, the master key to the activation ofTLR4/MD-2-positive cells: M. Huber, et al.; Eur. J. Immunol. 36, 701 (2006), Abstract;
CD14 is required for MyD88-independent LPS signaling: Z. Jiang, et al.; Nat. Immunol. 6, 565 (2005), Abstract;
Isolation and purification of R-form lipopolysaccharides: C. Galanos & O. Lüderitz; Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry 9, 11 (1993), Abstract;
Electrodialysis of lipopolysaccharides and their conversion to uniform salt forms: C. Galanos & O. Lüderitz; Eur. J. Biochem. 54, 603 (1975), Abstract;
A new method for the extraction of R lipopolysaccharides: C. Galanos, et al.; Eur. J. Biochem. 9, 245 (1969), Abstract;

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