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LPS from E. coli, Serotype EH100 (Ra) (TLRgrade™) (Ready-to-Use)

TLR4 activator
 
ALX-581-010-L001 1 ml 148.00 USD
 
ALX-581-010-L002 2 ml 214.00 USD
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Product Specification

Alternative Name:Lipopolysaccharide from E. coli, Serotype EH100(Ra)
 
Source:Rough (R)-form LPS isolated and purified from E. coli EH100 (Ra-mutant) by a modification of the PCP extraction method, converted to the uniform sodium salt form and dissolved in sterile pyrogen-free double distilled water.
 
Concentration:1mg/ml
 
Formulation:Liquid. Sterile, ready-to-use solution in double distilled, pyrogen-free water.
 
Purity:Absence of detectable protein or DNA contaminants with agonistic TLR activity.
 
Appearance:Clear colorless liquid. Note that when stored as directed at +4°C the solution may experience micro-crystallization and appear turbid. This turbidity will clear upon warming and does not affect the performance of the product.
 
Activity:Strong activator of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. Does not activate TLR2 or other TLRs as determined with splenocytes and macrophages from TLR4 deficient mice. No further re-extraction required.Smooth (S)-form LPS are commonly the preferred choice for whole animal studies, whereas Rough (R)-form LPS are primarily used in cellular in vitro activation studies.
 
Shipping:Ambient
 
Long Term Storage:+4°C
 
Use/Stability:Stable for at least 1 year after receipt when stored at +4°C.
 
Handling:Do not ingest. Wear gloves and mask when handling this product! Avoid contact through all modes of exposure. LPS compounds are highly pyrogenic. Avoid accidental injection; extreme care should be taken when handling in conjunction with hypodermic syringes. Use must be restricted to qualified personnel.
 

Product Literature References

Gain-of-function mutation of tristetraprolin impairs negative feedback control of macrophages in vitro, yet has overwhelmingly anti-inflammatory consequences in vivo: J.D. O'Neil, et al.; Mol. Cell. Biol. 37, e00536 (2017), Abstract; Full Text
HIV-1 gp120 influences the expression of microRNAs in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells via STAT3 activation: A. Masotti, et al.; BMC Genomics 16, 480 (2015), Application(s): Cell Culture, Abstract; Full Text
Pyruvate kinase M2 regulates Hif-1α activity and IL-1β induction and is a critical determinant of the warburg effect in LPS-activated macrophages: E.M. Palsson-McDermott, et al.; Cell Metab. 21, 65 (2015), Application(s): Size Exclusion Chromatography, Western Blotting, Abstract; Full Text
Activation of TLR4 signaling promotes gastric cancer progression by inducing mitochondrial ROS production: X. Yuan, et al.; Cell Death Dis. 4, e794 (2013), Abstract; Full Text
CD200 fusion protein decreases microglial activation in the hippocampus of aged rats: F.F. Cox, et al.; Brain Behav. Immun. 26, 789 (2012), Abstract;
CD14 and TRIF govern distinct responsiveness and responses in mouse microglial TLR4 challenges by structural variants of LPS: T. Regen, et al.; Brain Behav. Immun. 25, 957 (2011), Abstract;
Inhibitors of p38 suppress cytokine production in rheumatoid arthritis synovial membranes: does variable inhibition of interleukin-6 production limit effectiveness in vivo?: T.H. Page, et al.; Arthritis Rheum. 62, 3221 (2010), Abstract;
Toll-like Receptor 2 Signaling in CD4(+) T Lymphocytes Promotes T Helper 17 Responses and Regulates the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Disease: J.M. Reynolds, et al.; Immunity 32, 692 (2010), Abstract;
Inflammasome-mediated disease animal models reveal roles for innate but not adaptive immunity: S.D. Brydges, et al.; Immunity 30, 875 (2009), Abstract;
Interleukin-1 and IL-23 induce innate IL-17 production from gammadelta T cells, amplifying Th17 responses and autoimmunity: C.E. Sutton, et al.; Immunity 31, 331 (2009), Abstract;
Interleukin-17-producing gammadelta T cells selectively expand in response to pathogen products and environmental signals: B. Martin, et al.; Immunity 31, 321 (2009), Abstract;
Lipopolysaccharide elicits expression of immune-related genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori: H. Tanaka, et al.; Insect Mol. Biol. 18, 71 (2009), Abstract;
MyD88 adaptor-like is not essential for TLR2 signaling and inhibits signaling by TLR3: E. F. Kenny, et al.; J. Immunol. 183, 3642 (2009), Abstract;
Suppression of interleukin-33 bioactivity through proteolysis by apoptotic caspases: A. U. Lüthi, et al.; Immunity 31, 84 (2009), Abstract;
TRIL, a Functional Component of the TLR4 Signaling Complex, Highly Expressed in Brain: S.Carpenter, et al.; J. Immunol. 183, 3989 (2009), Abstract;
R-form LPS, the master key to the activation ofTLR4/MD-2-positive cells: M. Huber, et al.; Eur. J. Immunol. 36, 701 (2006), Abstract;
Isolation and purification of R-form lipopolysaccharides: C. Galanos & O. Lüderitz; Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry 9, 11 (1993), Abstract;
Electrodialysis of lipopolysaccharides and their conversion to uniform salt forms: C. Galanos & O. Lüderitz; Eur. J. Biochem. 54, 603 (1975), Abstract;
A new method for the extraction of R lipopolysaccharides: C. Galanos, et al.; Eur. J. Biochem. 9, 245 (1969), Abstract;

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