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LPS from E. coli, Serotype R515 (Re) (TLRgrade™) (Ready-to-Use)

TLR4 activator
 
ALX-581-007-L001 1 ml 148.00 USD
 
ALX-581-007-L002 2 ml 210.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 
Replaces Prod. #: ALX-581-204

Product Specification

Alternative Name:Lipopolysaccharide from E. coli, Serotype R515 (Re)
 
Source:Rough (R)-form LPS isolated and purified from E. coli R515 (Re mutant) by a modification of the PCP extraction method, converted to the uniform sodium salt form and dissolved in sterile pyrogen-free double distilled water.
 
Concentration:1mg/ml
 
Formulation:Liquid. Sterile, ready-to-use solution in pyrogen-free double distilled water.
 
Purity:Absence of detectable protein or DNA contaminants with agonistic TLR activity.
 
Activity:Strong activator of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. Does not activate TLR2 or other TLRs as determined with splenocytes and macrophages from TLR4 deficient mice. No further re-extraction required.Smooth (S)-form LPS are commonly the preferred choice for whole animal studies, whereas Rough (R)-form LPS are primarily used in cellular in vitro activation studies.
 
Shipping:Ambient
 
Long Term Storage:+4°C
 
Use/Stability:Stable for at least 1 year after receipt when stored at +4°C.
 
Handling:Do not ingest. Wear gloves and mask when handling this product! Avoid contact through all modes of exposure. LPS compounds are highly pyrogenic. Avoid accidental injection; extreme care should be taken when handling in conjunction with hypodermic syringes Use must be restricted to qualified personnel. Keep sterile.
 
lps
Figure: Activation of macrophages from TLR4 wild type compared to TLR4 deficient mice by LPS and Lipid A from ALEXIS. Lipid A or LPS concentrations, which induced maximal activation of  TLR4 wild type mouse macrophages, were also applied to TLR4 deficient mouse macrophages. 10 units of IL-6 correspond to the detection limit of the IL-6 ELISA.
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Product Literature References

Evaluation of NADPH oxidases as drug targets in a mouse model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: T. Seredenina, et al.; Free Radic. Biol. Med. 97, 95 (2016), Application(s): Cell culture, Abstract;
Fasciola hepatica Surface Coat Glycoproteins Contain Mannosylated and Phosphorylated N-glycans and Exhibit Immune Modulatory Properties Independent of the Mannose Receptor: A. Ravida, et al.; PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 10, e0004601 (2016), Application(s): Cell culture, Abstract; Full Text
The Sur1-Trpm4 channel regulates NOS2 transcription in TLR4-activated microglia: D.B. Kurland, et al. ; J. Neuroinflammation 13, 130 (2016), Application(s): LPS activation of TLR4, Abstract; Full Text
TLR activation by Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA) from lipid A mutants of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis: O. Rossi, et al.; Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 23, 304 (2016), Application(s): Cell culture, Abstract; Full Text
Neutrophil Recruitment to Lymph Nodes Limits Local Humoral Response to Staphylococcus aureus: O. Kamenyeva, et al.; PLoS Pathog. 11, e1004827 (2015), Application(s): Cell Culture, Abstract; Full Text
Protocatechuic acid inhibits human dendritic cell functional activation: role of PPARγ up-modulation: M. Del Corno, et al.; Immunobiology 219, 416 (2014), Application(s): Cell culture, Abstract;
Similarities and differences of innate immune responses elicited by smooth and rough LPS: I. Zanoni, et al.; Immunol. Lett. 142, 41 (2012), Abstract;
Stimulation of TLR4 by recombinant HSP70 requires structural integrity of the HSP70 protein itself: M. Luong, et al.; J. Inflamm. (Lond.) 9, 11 (2012), Abstract; Full Text
CD14 and TRIF govern distinct responsiveness and responses in mouse microglial TLR4 challenges by structural variants of LPS: T. Regen, et al.; Brain Behav. Immun. 25, 957 (2011), Abstract;
Pathways regulating lipopolysaccharide-induced neutrophil survival revealed by lentiviral transduction of primary human neutrophils: E.P. Dick, et al.; Immunol. 127, 249 (2009), Abstract; Full Text
Human Langerhans cells selectively activated via Toll-like receptor 2 agonists acquire migratory and CD4+T cell stimulatory capacity: M. Peiser, et al.; J. Leukoc. Biol. 83, 1118 (2008), Abstract;
The role of TLR2 in the inflammatory activation of mouse fibroblasts by human antiphospholipid antibodies: N. Satta, et al.; Blood 109, 1507 (2007), Abstract; Full Text
Cooperative molecular and cellular networks regulate Toll-like receptor-dependent inflammatory responses: G.E. Morris, et al.; FASEB J. 20, 2153 (2006), Abstract; Full Text
Functional and biochemical characterization of epithelial bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein: G. Canny, et al.; Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 290, G557 (2006), Abstract; Full Text
R-form LPS, the master key to the activation ofTLR4/MD-2-positive cells: M. Huber, et al.; Eur. J. Immunol. 36, 701 (2006), Abstract;
Toll-like receptors TLR2 and TLR4 initiate the innate immune response of the renal tubular epithelium to bacterial products: P. Chowdhury, et al.; Clin. Exp. Immunol. 145, 346 (2006), Abstract; Full Text
Trypsin-sensitive modulation of intestinal epithelial MD-2 as mechanism of lipopolysaccharide tolerance: E. Cario, et al.; J. Immunol. 176, 4258 (2006), Abstract; Full Text
Inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis by TLR agonists in whole blood: involvement of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt and NF-kappaB signaling pathways, leading to increased levels of Mcl-1, A1, and phosphorylated Bad: S. François, et al.; J. Immunol. 174, 3633 (2005), Abstract; Full Text
Toll-like receptor 4 signaling regulates cytosolic phospholipase A2 activation and lipid generation in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages: H.Y. Qi & J.H. Shelhamer; J. Biol. Chem. 280, 38969 (2005), Abstract; Full Text
Isolation and purification of R-form lipopolysaccharides: C. Galanos & O. Lüderitz; Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry 9, 11 (1993), Abstract;
Electrodialysis of lipopolysaccharides and their conversion to uniform salt forms: C. Galanos & O. Lüderitz; Eur. J. Biochem. 54, 603 (1975), Abstract; Full Text
A new method for the extraction of R lipopolysaccharides: C. Galanos, et al.; Eur. J. Biochem. 9, 245 (1969), Abstract;

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