Online Purchasing Account You are logged on as Guest. LoginRegister a New AccountShopping cart (Empty)
United States 

Microcystin-LR (Analytical Standard)

Inhibitor of PP1 and PP2A
 
ALX-350-431-C010 10 µg 174.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 
  • Make it your standard today!
  • Highest purity on the market!
Microycystin-LR is a naturally occuring heptapeptide ester hepatotoxin and has been seen to be one of the most toxic within the Microcystin family. Studies have also revealed this toxin can act as a tumor promoter by selectively inhibiting protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A). PP2B is less sensitive and PP2C is not inhibited up to 4µM. This product is useful for affinity-purification of PP2A. It is not cell permeable except in liver cells, which appear to have a functional uptake system. Is absorbed by hepatocytes via the multispecific organic anion transporter. Does not induce any effects on mouse skin or human fibroblasts due to cell membranes impermeability. Has no effect on protein kinases. Less toxic than the more hydrophobic analogs microcystin-LY, -LW and -LF.
Microcystin-LR has been frequently found as a contaminate to fresh-water lakes and ponds causing a major negative impact. This product can be used as an analytical standard (reference substance) for water testing. The product can also be used a very pure Microcystin-LR in studying its interaction with the protein phosphatases.

Product Specification

Formula:C49H74N10O12
 
MW:995.2
 
Source:Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa.
 
CAS:101043-37-2
 
RTECS:GT2810000
 
Absorbance maximum:239nm
 
Purity:≥99% (HPLC)
 
Purity Detail:Flash Chromatography followed by HPLC
 
Identity:Identity determined by MS.
 
Appearance:Whitish film adhered to inside of the vial.
 
Solubility:Soluble in 100% ethanol, methanol or DMSO.
 
Shipping:Shipped on Dry Ice
 
Short Term Storage:-20°C
 
Long Term Storage:-20°C
 
Use/Stability:Preparation of stock solution:
  • Thaw vial. Centrifuge the vial for maximum recovery.
  • Using a sterile syringe, draw the desired solvent (suggested solvent is methanol). Make sure that no bubbles are drawn.
  • Inject 1.0ml of the desired solvent into the septum to obtain a concentration of 10µg/ml.
  • Make sure that all the solvent has been injected prior to removing the syringe from the septum.
  • Gently swirl the vial to get toxin into solution.
  • If required, gently tap the bottom of the vial.
  • Material is ready for analysis.
Stock solutions are stable for up to 6 months when stored at -20°C. Unstable at pH >7.7.
 
Handling:Warm to room temperature before opening. Keep sterile. For maximum product recovery after thawing, centrifuge the vial before opening the cap.
 
Scientific Background:Microcystins are a group of cyclic heptapeptide hepatotoxins produced by a number of cyanobacterial genera. The most notable of which, and namesake, is the widespread genus Microcystis. Structurally, all microcystins consist of the generalized structure cyclo(-D-Ala1-X2-D-MeAsp3-Y4-Adda5-D-Glu6-Mdha7-). X and Y are variable L-amino acids, D-MeAsp is D-erythro-β-methylaspartic acid and Mdha is N-methyldehydroalanine. Adda is the cyanobacteria unique C20 β-amino acid 3-amino-9-methoxy-2,6,8-trimethyl-10-phenyl-deca-4,6-dienoic acid. Substitutions of the variable L-amino acids at positions 2 and 4 give rise to at least 21 known primary microcystin analogs and alterations in the other constituent amino acids result in more than 90 reported mycrocystins to date.
 
ALX-350-431 structure
ALX-350-431 HPLC
ALX-350-431 UV
ALX-350-431 MS
Please mouse over
ALX-350-431 structure ALX-350-431 HPLC ALX-350-431 UV ALX-350-431 MS

Product Literature References

Comparative effects of nodularin and microcystin-LR in zebrafish: 1. Uptake by organic anion transporting polypeptide Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1): S. Faltermann, et al.; Aquat. Toxicol. 171, 69 (2016), Application(s): Cellular uptake and immunoblotting, Abstract;
Comparative effects of nodularin and microcystin-LR in zebrafish: 2. Uptake and molecular effects in eleuthero-embryos and adult liver with focus on endoplasmic reticulum stress: S. Faltermann, et al.; Aquat. Toxicol. 171, 77 (2016), Application(s): Induced ER-stress and TNFα in liver organ cultures of zebrafish, Abstract;
Pulsed galvanostatic control of a solid-contact ion-selective electrode for potentiometric biosensing of microcystin-LR: N. Yu, et al.; Sens. Actuators B Chem. 230, 785 (2016), Application(s): Inhibition of protein phosphatase,
Variation in the synthesis of microcystin in response to saline and osmotic stress in Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806: B. Martín-Luna, et al.; Limnetica 34, 205 (2015), Application(s): Standards, Full Text
Decline of sperm quality and testicular function in male mice during chronic low-dose exposure to microcystin-LR: Y. Chen, et al.; Reprod. Toxicol. 31, 551 (2011), Abstract;
Global Gene Expression Profiling in Larval Zebrafish Exposed to Microcystin-LR and Microcystis Reveals Endocrine Disrupting Effects of Cyanobacteria: E.D. Rogers, et al; Environ. Sci. Technol. 45, 1962 (2011), Abstract;
Investigation of microcystin congener-dependent uptake into primary murine neurons: D. Feurstein, et al.; Environ. Health Perspect. 118, 1370 (2010), Abstract; Full Text
Analysis of dissolved microcystins in surface water samples from Kovada Lake, Turkey: F. Gurbuz, et al.; Sci. Total Environ. 407, 4038 (2009), Abstract;
Mitochondria a key role in microcystin-LR kidney intoxication: R. La-Salete, et al.; J. Appl. Toxicol. 28, 55 (2008), Abstract;
Decrease in toxicity of microcystins LA and LR in drinking water by ozonation: S. Brooke, et al.; Toxicon. 48, 1054 (2006), Abstract;
Negative regulation of ERK and Elk by protein kinase B modulates c-Fos transcription: I. Galetic, et al.; J. Biol. Chem. 278, 4416 (2003), Abstract; Full Text
The toxicology of microcystin-LR: occurrence, toxicokinetics, toxicodynamics, diagnosis and treatment: K. Bischoff; Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 43, 294 (2001), Review, Abstract;
Comparative toxicity of four microcystins of different hydrophobicities to the protozoan, Tetrahymena pyriformis: C.J. Ward & G.A. Codd; J. Appl. Microbiol. 86, 874 (1999), Abstract;
Unique features of the okadaic acid activity class of tumor promoters: H. Fujiki & M. Suganuma; J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 125, 150 (1999), Review, Abstract;
Microcystin uptake and inhibition of protein phosphatases: effects of chemoprotectants and self-inhibition in relation to known hepatic transporters: M. Runnegar, et al.; Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 134, 264 (1995), Abstract;
Two significant aspects of microcystin-LR: specific binding and liver specificity: R. Nishiwaki, et al.; Cancer Lett. 83, 283 (1994), Abstract;
Evidence for the regulation of exocytic transport by protein phosphorylation: H.W. Davidson, et al.; J. Cell. Biol. 116, 1343 (1992), Abstract;
Liver tumor promotion by the cyanobacterial cyclic peptide toxin microcystin-LR: R. Nishiwaki-Matsushima, et al.; J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 118, 420 (1992), Abstract;
Protein phosphatase 2A is a specific protamine-kinase-inactivating phosphatase: G.D. Amick, et al.; Biochem. J. 287, 1019 (1992), Abstract;
Increased synthase phosphatase activity is responsible for the super-activation of glycogen synthase in hepatocytes from fasted obese Zucker rats: L. Lavoie, et al.; Endocrinology 129, 2674 (1991), Abstract;
Characterization of microcystin-LR, a potent inhibitor of type 1 and type 2A protein phosphatases: R.E. Honkanen, et al.; J. Biol. Chem. 265, 19401 (1990), Abstract; Full Text
Cyanobacterial microcystin-LR is a potent and specific inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A from both mammals and higher plants: C. MacKintosh, et al.; FEBS Lett. 264, 187 (1990), Abstract;
Nodularin, microcystin, and the configuration of Adda: K.L. Rinehart, et al.; JACS 110, 8557 (1988),
Structural studies on cyanoginosins-LR, -YR, -YA, and -YM, peptide toxins from Microcystis aeruginosa: D.P. Botes, et al.; J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 1 1985, 2747 (1985), Abstract;

Related Products

Microcystin-LR 

Inhibitor of PP1 and PP2A
101043-37-2, Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-012-C100 100 µg 68.00 USD
 
ALX-350-012-C500 500 µg 264.00 USD
 
ALX-350-012-M001 1 mg 468.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

Microcystin-LA 

Inhibitor of PP2A and calcineurin
96180-79-9, Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-096-C025 25 µg 173.00 USD
 
ALX-350-096-C100 100 µg 267.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

Microcystin-LF 

154037-70-4, Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-081-C025 25 µg 167.00 USD
 
ALX-350-081-C100 100 µg 515.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

Microcystin-LW 

157622-02-1, Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-080-C025 25 µg 167.00 USD
 
ALX-350-080-C100 100 µg 473.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

Microcystin-LY 

123304-10-9, Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-148-C025 25 µg 166.00 USD
 
ALX-350-148-C100 100 µg 480.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

Microcystin-RR 

PP2A inhibitor
111755-37-4, Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-043-C050 50 µg 90.00 USD
 
ALX-350-043-C100 100 µg 166.00 USD
 
ALX-350-043-C250 250 µg 317.00 USD
 
ALX-350-043-C500 500 µg 630.00 USD
 
ALX-350-043-M001 1 mg 1,125.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

Microcystin-RR (Analytical Standard) 

PP2A inhibitor
111755-37-4, Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥99% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-432-C010 10 µg 205.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

Microcystin-YR 

Inhibitor of PP1 and PP2A
101064-48-6, Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-044-C025 25 µg 158.00 USD
 
ALX-350-044-C100 100 µg 299.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

[D-Asp3]microcystin-RR 

Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-168-C025 25 µg 185.00 USD
 
ALX-350-168-C100 100 µg 399.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

Microcystin-WR 

138234-58-9, Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-167-C025 25 µg 187.00 USD
 
ALX-350-167-C100 100 µg 404.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

[D-Asp3]microcystin-LR 

Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-173-C025 25 µg 182.00 USD
 
ALX-350-173-C100 100 µg 395.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

Microcystin-HtyR 

Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-174-C025 25 µg 182.00 USD
 
ALX-350-174-C100 100 µg 397.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

Microcystin-HilR 

Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa., ≥95% (HPLC) | Print as PDF
 
ALX-350-177-C025 25 µg 185.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

Microcystins (Adda specific) ELISA kit 

Patented ELISA for rapid detection of microcystins and nodularins.
ELISA | Print as PDF
 
ALX-850-319-KI01 96 wells 689.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

Microcystin-LR monoclonal antibody (MC10E7) 

ELISA, IHC (PS), WB | Print as PDF
 
ALX-804-320-C200 200 µg 281.00 USD
Do you need bulk/larger quantities?
 

Related Literature

Brochures
Essential Research Tools for Neurodegeneration & Neural Signaling
Essential Research Tools for Neurodegeneration & Neural Signaling
Download as PDF

Brochures
Microcystins
Microcystins
Download as PDF

Technical Posters
Disease-Associated Stress Signaling
Disease-Associated Stress Signaling
Download as PDF

All new literature pieces

Recommend this page

 
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.
Keep in touch

©2017 Enzo Life Sciences, Inc.,