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Microcystin-HtyR

 
ALX-350-174-C025 25 µg 182.00 USD
 
ALX-350-174-C100 100 µg 397.00 USD
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Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa. Microcystin containing a homotyrosine (Hty) in position 2 and arginine (R) in position 4. Hepatotoxic.

Product Specification

Alternative Name:[Hty2]microcystin-YR
 
Formula:C53H74N10O13
 
MW:1059.2
 
Source:Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa.
 
Purity:≥95% (HPLC)
 
Identity:Identity determined by MS.
 
Appearance:White to off-white powder or oily film adhered to inside of the vial.
 
Solubility:Soluble in methanol or DMSO.
 
Shipping:Ambient
 
Long Term Storage:-20°C
 
Handling:For maximum product recovery after thawing, centrifuge the vial before opening the cap.
 
Scientific Background:Microcystins are a group of cyclic heptapeptide hepatotoxins produced by a number of cyanobacterial genera. The most notable of which, and namesake, is the widespread genus Microcystis. Structurally, all microcystins consist of the generalized structure cyclo(-D-Ala1-X2-D-MeAsp3-Y4-Adda5-D-Glu6-Mdha7-). X and Y are variable L-amino acids, D-MeAsp is D-erythro-β-methylaspartic acid and Mdha is N-methyldehydroalanine. Adda is the cyanobacteria unique C20 β-amino acid 3-amino-9-methoxy-2,6,8-trimethyl-10-phenyl-deca-4,6-dienoic acid. Substitutions of the variable L-amino acids at positions 2 and 4 give rise to at least 21 known primary microcystin analogs and alterations in the other constituent amino acids result in more than 90 reported mycrocystins to date.
 
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Product Literature References

Detection of the cyanobacterial hepatotoxins microcystins: J. McElhiney and L.A. Lawton; Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 203, 219 (2005), Abstract;
Inhibition of several protein phosphatases by a non-covalently interacting microcystin and a novel cyanobacterial peptide, nostocyclin: C.J. Hastie, et al.; Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1726, 187 (2005), Abstract;
Production of secondary metabolites by freshwater cyanobacteria: K. Harada; Pharm. Bull. 52, 889 (2004), Abstract;
The toxicology of microcystins: R.M. Dawson; Toxicon 36, 953 (1998), Abstract;
The cyanotoxins: W.W. Carmichael; Adv. Bot. Res. 27, 211 (1997),
Structures of three new homotyrosine-containing microcystins and a new homophenylalanine variant from Anabaena sp. strain 66: M. Namikoshi, et al.; Chem. Res. Toxicol. 5, 661 (1992), Abstract;

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