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Microcystin-LF

 
ALX-350-081-C025 25 µg 167.00 USD
 
ALX-350-081-C100 100 µg 515.00 USD
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Analog of microcystin-LR (Prod. No. ALX-350-012) with Phe substituted in place of Arg. Hydrophobic and believed to be more cell permeable than other microcystins. More toxic than the more hydrophilic analogs such as microcystin-LR and microcystin-LY.

Product Specification

Formula:C52H71N7O12
 
MW:986.2
 
Source:Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa.
 
CAS:154037-70-4
 
Purity:≥95% (HPLC)
 
Identity:Identity determined by MS.
 
Appearance:Whitish film adhered to inside of the vial.
 
Solubility:Soluble in methanol.
 
Shipping:Ambient
 
Long Term Storage:-20°C
 
Use/Stability:Stable in solution for at least 4 weeks when stored at -20 °C.
 
Handling:For maximum product recovery after thawing, centrifuge the vial before opening the cap.
 
Scientific Background:Microcystins are a group of cyclic heptapeptide hepatotoxins produced by a number of cyanobacterial genera. The most notable of which, and namesake, is the widespread genus Microcystis. Structurally, all microcystins consist of the generalized structure cyclo(-D-Ala1-X2-D-MeAsp3-Y4-Adda5-D-Glu6-Mdha7-). X and Y are variable L-amino acids, D-MeAsp is D-erythro-ß-methylaspartic acid and Mdha is N-methyldehydroalanine. Adda is the cyanobacteria unique C20 ß-amino acid 3-amino-9-methoxy-2,6,8-trimethyl-10-phenyl-deca-4,6-dienoic acid. Substitutions of the variable L-amino acids at positions 2 and 4 give rise to at least 21 known primary microcystin analogs and alterations in the other constituent amino acids result in more than 90 reported mycrocystins to date.
 
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Product Literature References

Effect of chlorination on the protein phosphatase inhibition activity for several microcystins: H. Mash, et al.; Water Res. 95, 230 (2016), Abstract;
Hepatotoxic Microcystin Removal Using Pumice Embedded Monolithic Composite Cryogel as an Alternative Water Treatment Method: F. Gurbuz, et al.; Water Res. 90, 337 (2016), Application(s): Injection, Abstract;
Selective cytotoxicity of microcystins LR, LW and LF in rat astrocytes: K. Bulc Rozman, et al.; Toxicol. Lett. 15, 1 (2016), Abstract;
Biodegradation of multiple microcystins and cylindrospermopsin in clarifier sludge and a drinking water source: Effects of particulate attached bacteria and phycocyanin: E. Maghsoudi, et al.; Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 120, 409 (2015), Abstract;
Investigation of microcystin congener-dependent uptake into primary murine neurons: D. Feurstein, et al.; Environ. Health Perspect. 118, 1370 (2010), Abstract; Full Text
The role of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs/SLCOs) in the toxicity of different microcystin congeners in vitro: a comparison of primary human hepatocytes and OATP-transfected HEK293 cells: A. Fischer, et al.; Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 245, 9 (2010), Abstract;
Pseudodiarrhoea in zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) exposed to microcystins: G. Juhel, et al.; J. Exp. Biol. 209, 810 (2006), Abstract;
Detection and quantification of microcystins (cyanobacterial hepatotoxins) with recombinant antibody fragments isolated from a naive human phage display library: J. McElhiney, et al.; FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 193, 83 (2000), Abstract;
Comparative toxicity of four microcystins of different hydrophobicities to the protozoan, Tetrahymena pyriformis: C.J. Ward & G.A. Codd; J. Appl. Microbiol. 86, 874 (1999), Abstract;
Isolation and characterization of microcystins from laboratory cultures and environmental samples of Microcystis aeruginosa and from an associated animal toxicosis: L.A. Lawton, et al.; Nat. Toxins 3, 50 (1995), Abstract;
Extraction and high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of microcystins in raw and treated waters: L.A. Lawton, et al.; Analyst 119, 1525 (1994), Abstract;
First report of microcystins from a Brazilian isolate of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa: S.M.F.O. Azevedo, et al.; J. Appl. Phycol. 6, 261 (1994),

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