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MALP-2

Activator of the TLR2/TLR6 complex.
 
ALX-162-027-C050 50 µg 386.00 USD
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MALP-2 was originally isolated from Mycoplasma fermentans. This MALP-2 corresponds to the originally isolated isomer, which expresses potent endotoxin-like activity and approaches in certain experimental systems the toxicity of LPS. For description of the stereochemistry of MALP-2 please refer to M. Morr, et al. Eur. J. Immunol. 32, 3337 (2002). The importance of the stereochemistry of the central carbon atom of the diacylglycerol group has been described in the K.M. Omueti, et al. paper (2005), see below. MALP-2 signaling, unlike that of LPS, is not transduced via TLR4, but is induced via TLR2 and TLR6 signaling. For more information about MALP-2 see www.malp-research.de.

Product Specification

Alternative Name:Macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2, S-[2,3-bis(Palmityloxy)-(2R)-propyl-cysteinyl-GNNDESNISFKEK]
 
Formula:C99H167N19O30S
 
MW:2135.2
 
Source:Synthetic.
 
Quantity:1x107units.
 
Concentration:0.1mg/ml
 
Formulation:Liquid. Sterile solution in PBS containing 2.5% (v/v) 2-propanol, 25mM n-octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside and 1% (wt/v) human serum albumin.
 
Activity:Specific activity is ~2x108units/mg. One unit is defined as the dilution giving half maximal release of nitric oxide from C3H/HeJ mouse peritoneal exudate cells in the standard assay.
 
Shipping:Shipped on Blue Ice
 
Short Term Storage:-20°C
 
Long Term Storage:-80°C
 
Use/Stability:Stable for at least 2 years when stored at -20°C.
 
Handling:Avoid accidental injection, extreme care should be taken with hypodermic syringes. Avoid inhalation and prevent this compound from entering the bloodstream. Avoid freeze/thaw cycles.
 
Technical Info/Product Notes:MALP-2 sticks avidly to glass or plastic. Since it is active at very low concentrations, i.e. at high dilutions, these low amounts of material tend to become adsorbed to pipette tips and plastic or glass containers. To avoid this, prepare several dilution steps of the MALP-2 stock solution with medium containing 5% autologous serum or buffers with 2% HSA. The presence of 50mM octyl glucoside in the first dilution step is often beneficial and gives rise to higher activity. Avoid small volumes in large vessels. Do not filter.Because of the ester-bound fatty acids, MALP-2 is sensitive to alkali or acid. The medium should be preconditioned in the CO2 incubator in order to ensure that the pH does not become alkaline. Add cells in preconditioned medium as soon as possible and incubate.
 

Product Literature References

NLRP3 activation and mitosis are mutually exclusive events coordinated by NEK7, a new inflammasome component: H. Shi, et al.; Nat. Immunol. 17, 250 (2016), Application(s): Stimulation of human monocytes, Abstract;
Keratinocyte nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation modulates early TLR2-mediated wound healing responses: M. Kishibe, et al.; Int. Immunopharmacol. 29, 63 (2015), Application(s): Cell Culture, Abstract;
Myeloid-specific Rictor deletion induces M1 macrophage polarization and potentiates in vivo pro-inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide: W.T. Festuccia, et al.; PLoS One 9, e95432 (2014), Abstract; Full Text
CD14 and TRIF govern distinct responsiveness and responses in mouse microglial TLR4 challenges by structural variants of LPS: T. Regen, et al.; Brain Behav. Immun. 25, 957 (2011), Abstract;
Human Langerhans cells selectively activated via Toll-like receptor 2 agonists acquire migratory and CD4+T cell stimulatory capacity: M. Peiser, et al.; J. Leukoc. Biol. 83, 1118 (2008), Abstract;
Human -defensin-3 activates professional antigen-presenting cells via Toll-like receptors 1 and 2: N. Funderburg, et al.; PNAS 104, 18631 (2007), Abstract;
The role of TLR2 in the inflammatory activation of mouse fibroblasts by human antiphospholipid antibodies: N. Satta, et al.; Blood 109, 1507 (2007), Abstract;
CD14 is required for MyD88-independent LPS signaling: Z. Jiang, et al.; Nat. Immunol. 6, 565 (2005), Abstract;
Domain exchange between human toll-like receptors 1 and 6 reveals a region required for lipopeptide discrimination: K.O. Omueti, et al.; J. Biol. Chem. 280, 36616 (2005), Abstract; Full Text
IRF-7 is the master regulator of type-I interferon-dependent immune responses: K. Honda, et al.; Nature 434, 772 (2005), Abstract;
The tumor suppressor CYLD Acts as a Negative Regulator for Toll-like Receptor 2 Signaling via Negative Cross-talk with TRAF6 and TRAF7: H. Yoshida, et al.; J. Biol. Chem. 280, 41111 (2005), Abstract; Full Text
Differential recognition of structural details of bacterial lipopeptides by toll-like receptors: M. Morr, et al.; Eur. J. Immunol. 32, 3337 (2002), Abstract;
In vivo effects of a synthetic 2-kilodalton macrophage-activating lipopeptide of Mycoplasma fermentans after pulmonary application: A. Luhrmann, et al.; Infect. Immun. 70, 3785 (2002), Abstract; Full Text
The Mycoplasma-derived lipopeptide MALP-2 is a potent mucosal adjuvant: F. Rharbaoui, et al.; Eur. J. Immunol. 32, 2857 (2002), Abstract;
Discrimination of bacterial lipoproteins by Toll-like receptor 6: O. Takeuchi, et al.; Int. Immunol. 13, 933 (2001), Abstract;
MALP-2, a Mycoplasma lipopeptide with classical endotoxic properties: end of an era of LPS monopoly?: C. Galanos, et al.; J. Endotox. Res. 6, 471 (2000), Abstract;
Induction of cytokines and chemokines in human monocytes by Mycoplasma fermentans-derived lipoprotein MALP-2: A. Kaufmann, et al.; Infect. Immun. 67, 6303 (1999), Abstract; Full Text
Isolation, structure elucidation, and synthesis of a macrophage stimulatory lipopeptide from Mycoplasma fermentans acting at picomolar concentration: P.F. Mühlradt, et al.; J. Exp. Med. 185, 1951 (1997), Abstract; Full Text
Purification and partial biochemical characterization of a Mycoplasma fermentans-derived substance that activates macrophages to release nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-6: P.F. Muhlradt and M. Frisch; Infect. Immun. 62, 3801 (1994), Abstract;

General Literature References

Site-specific proteolysis of the MALP-404 lipoprotein determines the release of a soluble selective lipoprotein-associated motif-containing fragment and alteration of the surface phenotype of Mycoplasma fermentans: K.L. Davis & K.S. Wise; Infect. Immun. 70, 1129 (2002), Abstract; Full Text
Synergic effects of mycoplasmal lipopeptides and extracellular ATP on activation of macrophages: T. Into, et al.; Infect. Immun. 70, 3586 (2002), Abstract; Full Text

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